Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
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CALKINS, Norman A., educator, born in Gaines-ville, New York, 9 September, 1822. His education, begun in a district school, was continued in a classical school. At the age of eighteen he became a teacher at Castile, and later at Gainesville, where he was ultimately principal of the central school. In 1845 he was elected superintendent of schools for his native town, and re-elected in 1846. He removed to New York in the autumn of 1846. and for many years following conducted teachers' institutes in New York and the adjoining states, in November, 1862, he was elected assistant superintendent of schools in New York City, and by subsequent re-elections has continuously held this place. The official designation of the office now is superintendent of primary schools and primary departments. From 1870 till 1880 he was professor of methods and principles of teaching in the Saturday sessions of the normal College of the City of New York. Prof. Calkins has been prominent in the National educational association, having been president of the department of elementary schools in 1873; president of the department of school superintendence in 1883; treasurer in 1883-'5; and president in 1886. From 1857 till 1883 he held the treasurership of the American Congregational union. He is widely known in connection with his writings and lectures on object-teaching and other advanced methods of instruction. For ten years he published " The Student," which was used as a school reader, and furnished fresh reading matter every month. His contributions to educational journals have been very large, and he is the author of "Primary Object Lessons" (New York, 1861 ; new ed., 1870 ; Spanish ed., 1879); "Phonic Charts" (1869); with Henry Kiddie and Thos. F. Harrison, "How to Teach, A Graded Course of Instruction and Manual of Methods" (Cincinnati, 1873); " Manual of Object-Teaching" (New York, 1881); and " From Blackboard to Books" (1883). He selected and classified " Prang's Natural History Series" (Boston, 1873), and wrote the accompanying " Manual "; also " Aids for Object-Teaching-Trades and Occupations," with plates (1877), and Natural History Series for Children (1877).
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