Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
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OLAVIDE, Pablo Antonio Jose (o-lah-vee'-deh), Peruvian statesman, born in Lima in 1725: died in Baeza, Spain, in 1803. He studied in his native city, was graduated in his seventeenth year as doe-tot" of sacred law in the University of San Marcos, and in 1745 was appointed judge of the supreme court of lama. In the earthquake of 28 October, 1746, he lost his parents, a sister, and a great part of his fortune, but he rendered great service in saving victims and property from the ruins, he assisted with great zeal in the restoration of the city, even expending part of the remnant of his fortune for that purpose, but the interest that he took in rebuilding the theatre, in preference to the church of Socorro, offended the clergy, and they accused him of having perverted for that object funds that he held in trust from some victims of the earthquake. Their clamors became so loud that at last King Ferdinand VI. ordered him to appear in Madrid in 1749. He was imprisoned, and his trial began, but on account of sickness he was banished to Leganez, where he married a wealthy lady, and with her fortune probably bribed his judges not to take up the ease. His house became a meetingplace of philosophers and artists, and the Count de Aranda called him to Madrid, commissioned him to form a project for the education of youth, and appointed him director of the hospital of Seville. Count Aranda afterward took him as his secretary on his mission to Paris, and on his return he remained the chief adviser of that minister. The decree of the expulsion of the Jesuits from the Spanish possessions in South America was probably due to Olavide's influence. In 1768 he was appointed superintendent of the newly established colonies in Sierra Morena, where he worked assiduously, but, as he had admitted Protestant colonists from Germany and Switzerland, contrary to law, and strenuously opposed the establishment of monastical institutions, the clergy began soon to spread accusations of heresy against him. His communications with Holbach, d'Alambert, Diderot, and other philosophers were brought up against him, and Charles III. and his minister, Count Florida-Blanca, did not dare to interfere when Olavide was brought before the tribunal of the Inquisition. Ills trial lasted from 1776 till 1778, and on 24 November of the latter year he was condemned to eight years' imprisonment, but in 1780 he escaped from the Capuchin convent of Burgos to France. In 1781 he was to be extradited by demand of the Spanish court, but escaped to Switzerland, and did not return to France till after the revolution. In 1798 he received permission to return to Spain, and, obtaining a pension, lived in retirement in Baeza. He wrote" "Hipermenestra" and "Zehnira," tragedies; " El desertor frances," a comedy" "Naneta en la corte" and "El pintor enamorado de su toodelo," operettas--all published in Madrid (1754-'6), and first represented in a private theatre in his house. He also wrote "Evangelio en triunfo" (Valencia, 1797" translated into French, Lyons, 1805)" "Poemas Cristianos" (Madrid, 1799)" and "Salterio Espafiol" (1800" Lima, 1803 ;Lyons, 1845).
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