Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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MORILL0, Pablo (mo-reel'-yo), Spanish soldier, born in Fuente de Malva in 1777; died in Rochefort, France, 27 July, 1838. He was the son of poor laborers, and worked in his youth as a shepherd, but enlisted in 1797 in the marines, and served at Trafalgar in 1805. When the French invaded Spain he organized bands of guerillas in the province of Murcia, and after the fail of Vigo in 1809 was appointed colonel in the regular army, becoming major-general in 1814. In the following year he was sent to Venezuela and Colombia with an army of 10,000 men against the revolutionists, and in April attacked the island of Margarita, which surrendered after a short resistance. He then made sail for Corralitos, and after several engagements entered Caracas on 11 May, imposed a heavy contribution on the city, and organized a government. He landed with the main army on 20 August near Carthagena, which he besieged for nearly three months. After a strenuous resistance, famine compelled the garrison to abandon the place during the night, and on 6 December Morillo entered the city, after losing 3,000 men during the siege. Continuing his march toward Mompox, he entered Santa F5 de Bogota on 26 May, 1816, and executed 125 prominent citizens alone, including several women. The title of "pacificator" was conferred upon Morillo by royal order, and he was created Count of Carthagena. On 20 November, 1816, he left Bogota for Venezuela. He was defeated by Paez at Mucuritas on 28 January, 1817, and, seeing that the independent forces were gathering strength, retreated to the north, and after receiving re-enforcements in Cumana in June, sailed with 3,000 men for Margarita. He landed on 16 July, and after a campaign of a month, in which he lost many men without gaining any advantage, returned on 17 August to the continent, when he heard of the continuous success of Bolivar in Guyana. In the following November he occupied Calabozo, but after the junction of Bolivar and Paez, he abandoned that city in February, 1818, and retired toward Caracas. On 15 March he defeated Bolivar at La Puerta, being dangerously wounded during the action, and for his victory was created Marquis de la Puerta. In January, 1819, he marched again at the head of 6,500 men against Paez, but tired out by the rapid retreats of that general, who cut off his supplies, Morillo retired across Arauca river, and, after a defeat at Queseras del Medio on 2 April, returned with his army to Calabozo. Meanwhile Bolivar had been victorious in Colombia, and when Morillo received news in March, 1820, of the revolution of Cadix, and knew that he could not count on re-enforcements, he opened negotiations with Bolivar and other independent generals. They would treat only on the condition that he should recognize the independence of the country, and finally the armistice of Trujillo was signed on 25 November Convinced of the ultimate triumph of the cause of independence, Morillo had long before asked to be relieved, and on receiving a favorable answer sailed for Spain on 17 December, 1820. Being appointed to the command of the garrison of Madrid, he defeated the rebels at La Granja in 1821, became captain-general of Galicia in 1822, and took part with the constitutionalists against the royalists, commanding in 1823 the fourth army corps against the invading French army that was sent to restore the authority of Ferdinand VII. After the defeat of the cortes in August, Morillo, degraded by the king, retired to Rochefort in France. He published "Memorias relativas £ los principales acontecimientos de mis campafias en America" (Rochefort, 182fi).
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