Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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GUAL, Pedro (goo-ahl'), South American patriot, born in Caracas, Venezuela, in 1784; died in Guayaquil, Ecuador, 6 Nay, 1862. He was graduated at the University of Caracas in 1809, and soon afterward emigrated to Trinidad, to escape imprisonment for having expressed revolutionary opinions. He returned to Caracas on hearing of the revolution of 1810, was elected a member of the legislature in 1811, and also acted as secretary to General Miranda. After the surrender of the Republicans in 1812, Gual escaped to New York, but afterward returned to Cartagena. He was obliged to flee again to St. Thomas, but subsequently became governor of Cartagena, and then ambassador to the United States from Colombia. He was admitted to the bar in Washington, D. C., and began to practise law, when Bolivar summoned him to join the expedition of Montilla and Brion in 1816, which resulted in regaining the provinces of Cartagena, Santa Marta, and Rio Hacha. These provinces were united in one state, of which Gual became governor. While member of the congress of Cucuta he was made minister of finance and foreign affairs, and afterward held the same office in Bogota till 1826. He was a member of the American assembly which met in Mexico in 1826. From 1828 till 1837 he lived in retirement, when he was sent to Europe by the government of Ecuador, and caused Spain to acknowledge the independence of that country. In 1848 he removed to Caracas, where he lived in retirement during the administration of Monagas. On 15 March, 1858, there was a revolt against Monagas, and the National convention appointed Gual president of the provisional government. He restored order, and was appointed president of the council of state by General Castro, but resigned, and was elected deputy to the National convention of Valencia. In 1859 he was elected vice president of the republic, and in the next year Gual occupied the executive chair, acting with energy raising troops against the insurgents of the east. He resigned his office in 1861, and retired to private life in Guayaquil, where he remained until his death.
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