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PEDRO I. DE ALCANTARA, emperor of Brazil, born in Lisbon, Portugal, 12 October, 1798; died there, 24 September, 1834. He was son of the prince-regent Joao, heir-presumptive of the crown of Portugal, and he was hardly nine years of age when the Portuguese government, foreseeing that imminent peril threatened the royal family and the independence of the kingdom, resolved to send him to Brazil with the title of constable. But the march of the French army upon Portugal precipitated events. On 29 November the Portuguese royal family, flying before the French, emigrated to Brazil, and in March, 1808, the city of Rio Janeiro became the capital of the Portuguese monarchy. By the elevation of his father to the throne in 1816, Dora Pedro became heir-presumptive to the crown, but, being entirely removed from public affairs, he had no political education. In 1818 he married the Archduchess of Austria, Leopoldina Carolina Josepha. When the revolution of Oporto in 1820 proclaimed a provisional junta and the calling of a congress to form a constitution, the garrison of Rio Janeiro, together with the people, rose on 26 February, 1821, and forced the king to swear to recognize the future constitution for Brazil also. In March the king announced his intention to return to Portugal, leaving Dora Pedro as regent in Brazil, and ordered elections for the cortes of Lisbon. But on 21 April the people decided not to let the king depart, and formed a plan to take possession of the forts and prevent the sailing of the fleet. The crown prince, at the head of the troops, dispersed the mutineers on the 22d, and on the 26th the royal family sailed for Portugal, and Pedro entered upon the regency. The Portuguese cortes, afraid that the presence of the prince in Brazil would cause a gradual separation, decreed the re-establishment of the colonial government and the return of the prince to Portugal, under the pretext that his education should be finished. When the decrees arrived, 10 December, 1821, the people rose, and representations from all parts of the country, begging the prince to establish himself in Brazil, were signed, and presented to him on 9 January, 1822, in Rio Janeiro. Pedro consented to remain, thus disobeying the cortes. He issued a decree calling deputies from the provincial legislatures to assemble in Rio Janeiro to consult about the future of the country, and ordered that no decree of the cortes be promulgated in Brazil without his approbation. Pedro was the object of continuous manifestations of loyalty, and on 13 May he was honored by the municipality, the people, and troops, with the title of " perpetual defender of Brazil," but the cortes of Portugal continued in an attitude of hostility. While he was on a trip to the province of Sao Paulo, Pedro heard that the cortes had annulled his acts and had declared the governing junta and the prince's advisers subject to criminal prosecution, and he answered by declaring on 7 September, on the borders of Ypiranga river, the absolute independence of Brazil. This declaration was received everywhere with enthusiasm, and on his return to Rio Janeiro he was proclaimed emperor of Brazil on his twenty-fourth birthday, and consecrated in the cathedral on 1 December Under the guidance of Jose Bonifacio de Andrada 6 Silva (q. v, .), his minister of foreign relations, he organized an army to attack Bahia, the stronghold of the Portuguese forces, and improvised a navy under Lord Thomas Cochrane to blockade that port. Hunger and the fear of Cochrane's fire-ships caused the Portuguese authorities to evacuate the city in the night of 2 July, 1823, with the fleet, the army, and seventy vessels laden with riches. On 27 July Maranhao capitulated, and in September the emperor's authority was acknowledged everywhere. On 25 March, 1824, the new constitution was proclaimed, but the northern provinces opposed it, and a revolution began in Pernambuco, which was subdued after a heroic resistance. In 1825 Portugal, yielding to the influence of England, recognized the independence of Brazil, and on 29 August a treaty of peace was signed. The recognition by the treaty of a debt of £2,000,000 to Portugal burdened the finances of the new empire heavily, and the opposition began to attack the government, especially as the Brazilian arms were unfortunate in attempting to suppress the insurrection of the Banda Oriental (now Uruguay). In 1826 the death of King John VI. added a new difficulty, as Pedro I., his legal successor, seemed to be inclined to unite the two monarchies again, but he found such strong and general opposition that, after a consultation with his councillors, he abdicated the throne of Portugal in favor of his daughter, Maria da Gloria. But the unhappy result of the Cisplatine war grid the recognition of the independence of Uruguay, and also his inclination for personal government and for sustaining the ministry against the expressed desire of the majority, made him unpopular. He was accused of spending the resources of the nation in reconquering for his daughter the throne of Portugal, which had been usurped by his brother, Dora Miguel, and, tired of the continual strife, he abdicated the throne on 7 April, 1831, in favor of his son, then in his sixth year. He then retired with the empress and Queen Maria of Portugal on board the British ship of the line " Warspite," and sailed for England, accompanied by the French frigate " Seine," which carried his family to France. He organized in France a small army and fleet, and sailed on 10 February, 1832, for the Azores, leaving those islands with fresh troops in June to invade Portugal, and after a two years' campaign he established his daughter on the throne, the capitulation of Evora, 26 May, 1834, finishing the civil war. His health being undermined by the campaign, he caused the cortes to declare his daughter of age on 17 September, and died a few days afterward.--His son, Pedro II. (JOAO CARLOS LEOPOLDO SALVADOR BIBIANO FRANCISCO XAVIEIR DA PAULA LEOCADIO MIGUEL GABRIEL RAFAEL GONZAGA), emperor of Brazil, born in Rio Janeiro, 2 December, 1825, by the abdication of his father, became sovereign of Brazil when not, vet six years old. He had for two years, in 1831-'33, as tutor and sole regent Dora Bonifatio Jose de Andrada e Silva (q. v.), the leader of the Democratic party in Brazil. After the fall of Andrada in 1833, Pedro became a ward of a council of regency. In 1840, though still under age, he was declared by the chambers to have attained his majority, assumed the government on 23 July, and on 18 July, 1841, was solemnly crowned emperor of Brazil. On 4 September, 1843, he married Princess Theresa Carolina Maria de Bourbon, daughter of Francis I., king of the Two Sicilies. Soon after assuming the government. Pedro dissolved the Brazilian parliament, but this measure occasioned innumerable difficulties. There were insurrections in Sac Paulo in 1841, which General Caxias repressed with vigor, but in 1842 the province of Minas Geraes offered a more serious resistance, until the insurgent army of 6,000 men was completely routed at Santa Lucia. In 1848 the Liberals made another attempt at revolution in Pernambuco, but since that time Brazil has enjoyed internal peace, and the Democrats have abandoned all hope of fomenting more revolutionary movements. The emperor steadily increased the power of Brazil, and numerous internal improvements were carried on throughout the empire. Pedro, who is a man of literary and scientific achievements, has developed the commercial prosperity of the country, and has founded schools, colleges, and universities. By a decree of 4 September, 1850, he forbade the sale of the slaves in the interior of his dominions, and thus avoided difficulties with England. In 1852 he afforded aid to General Urquiza and enabled him to overthrow the dictator Rosas (q. v.), Brazil gaining an increase of territory and the free navigation of the river Plate. In 1860 Pedro undertook extensive journeys through the provinces of the empire to inquire into their wants, and in 1862 a difficulty with England was arranged by the arbitration of King Leopold of Belgium. In 1865, in conj unction with the Argentine and Uruguayan republics, he declared war against Paraguay, and personally assisted in the opening campaign, receiving in September of that year the surrender of the Paraguayan invading army of 10,000 men at Uruguayana. In 1867 he opened the navigation of the Amazon river to all nations. During the war with Paraguay he refused repeatedly to treat with Lopez (q. v.), and by his energy created new resources to forward re-enforcements to the front. The peace of 20 June, 1870, gave to Brazil an increase of territory. Under Pedro's impulse the parliament voted, on 27 August, 1871, a preliminary measure for the emancipation of the slaves. A few months before, in May, the emperor had embarked for Europe, and visited England and the continent, attending in Paris the sessions of the Geographical society, of which he has been a member since 1868. He sailed again for Brazil, 13 March, 1872, but in 1876 undertook a new journey, visiting the United States on the occasion of the Centennial exhibition, and travelling through Europe, the Holy Land, and Egypt, returning on 24 September, 1877, to Petropolis. In 1874 a difficulty with the ecclesiastical dignitaries culminated in the condemnation of the bishops of Olinda and Para to four years' imprisonment, but the emperor, after giving the church a proof of his firmness, pardoned them in 1876. In 1887 he set out on a new visit to Europe for the purpose of restoring his health, and during his absence his daughter Isabella has been appointed regent of the empire. The emperor is one of the most enlightened monarchs of the 19th century. He speaks and writes Portuguese, French, English, German, Spanish, and Italian correctly, is a liberal patron of letters, arts, and sciences, and of every branch of industry and commerce, and since 1877 has been an associate member of the French academy of sciences. During his reign, and through his influence, Brazil has steadily grown in power and importance. The national finances are in a prosperous condition, railways have been built, telegraphs and cable lines have been extended in every direction, the navigation of rivers has been promoted, slavery has been abolished, and free education has been made almost universal throughout the empire. His heir is his only daughter, Isabel Christina Leopoldina Augusta, born in Rio Janeiro, 29 July, 1846, who married, on 15 October, 1864, Prince Louis Philippe d'Orleans, Count d'Eu (q. v.). They have two sons, Pedro, born 15 October, 1875, and Luiz Felipe, born 26 January, 1878.
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