Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
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SANTANA, Pedro (san-tah'-nah), president of Santo Domingo, born in Hincha, 29 June. 1801; died in the city of Santo Domingo, 14 June. 1864. He stud-led law, but was living quietly on his farm when, in 1843, the Dominicans. revolted against Ilayti. He espoused their cause, was appointed brigadier by the provisional governing junta, and at the head of 2,400 men defeated the southern army of 15,000 men under Riviere Herard, 19 March, 1844. On 12 July, 1844, he was proclaimed supreme chief, after vanquishing his rival, Juan Duarte (q. v.). In the following November Santana was elected constitutional president, receiving also the title of liberator of the country. During the four years of his .administration he promoted agriculture and commerce, and sought tocreate financial resources. In 1848 the clerical party induced Soulouque (q. v.) to invade Dominican territory; but Santana was called to command the troops, defeated Soulouque, and, deposing President Jimenes, ruled as dictator till the election of Buenaventura Baez in October, 1849. He strongly favored the movement for annexation to the United States, which Baez defeated. Santana was re-elected president in 1853, and again defeated Soulouque's invasions in 1855 and 1856; but the credit of the government de-dined, and he resigned early in 1857. Baez was now recalled, but was driven from the island by a revolt in November, 1858, and Santana again assumed the executive. The internal struggles continued, and, despairing of his ability to preserve peace, San-tana opened negotiations with Spain, and, on 18 March, 1861, the incorporation of Santo Domingo with the Spanish monarchy was proclaimed. San-tana was commissioned lieutenant-general in the Spanish army, and received patents of nobility and various decorations, which caused unsupported accusations of bribery to be made against him. He retired to his farm, and when the rebellion against the Spanish rule began he offered his services to the governor and marched to Azua, promptly quelling the insurrection; but, when the opposition became general, he retired again, and died of remorse shortly before the end of the Spanish rule. He is execrated by many of his countrymen for what they call his treason, yet the majority recognize his unselfish motives and his thorough honesty while at the head of the government, and his undoubted bravery is acknowledged by all.
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