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Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1887-1889 and 1999. Virtualology.com warns that these 19th Century biographies contain errors and bias. We rely on volunteers to edit the historic biographies on a continual basis. If you would like to edit this biography please submit a rewritten biography in text form . If acceptable, the new biography will be published above the 19th Century Appleton's Cyclopedia Biography citing the volunteer editor





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Philip Barton Key

KEY, Philip Barton, lawyer, born in Cecil county, Maryland, in 1757; died in Georgetown, D. C., 28 July, 1815. His grandfather, Philip Key, came to this country from England accompanied by Dryden, brother of the poet, who died soon after his arrival, and is buried on Blakiston's island in the Potomac. Mr. Key obtained large grants of hind in St. Mary's, Cecil, and Frederick counties, Maryland, from the lords proprietary of the province, and also left property in England. He died in 1764. Philip Barton received a liberal education in England, and entered the British army after the Declaration of Independence. In 1778 he held a commission in the Maryland loyalists' regiment, of which he became captain in 1782, and went with his troops to Jamaica. He served in Florida, where he was taken prisoner, and upon his release on parole went to England. After peace was declared he retired on half pay, and in 1785 returned to Maryland, settling in Annapolis in 1790, where he soon attained note as a lawyer. In 1794 he was elected to the general assembly, in which he continued for several years. He removed to Georgetown in 1801. In 1807 he made a forlnal resignation of his claims to the British government in a letter to the British minister in Washington. He was elected to congress in 1806 as a Federalist, and his seat was contested, partly on the ground that he was not a citizen of Maryland. On this occasion he said in a speech, "I had returned to my country like the prodigal to his father, had felt as an American should feel, was received and forgiven, of which the most convincing proof is--my election." He served from 1807 till 1813.--Philip Barton's son, Philip Barton, legislator, born at " Woodley," Georgetown, D. C., 2 November, 1804; died at his plantation, Acadie, near Thibodaux, Louisiana, 4 May. 1854, was graduated at Hamilton, New York, in 1823, stud-led law under his cousin, Francis Scott Key, and practised for a short time at Annapolis, Maryland he went to Louisiana in 1835, and engaged in planting. He was a member of the legislature of Louisiana, and of the Constitutional convention in 1850.--The first Phillip Barton's cousin, Philip, born in St. Mary's county, Maryland, in 1750; died there, 4 January, 1820, received a collegiate education in England, and devoted himself on his return to this country to agriculture. He served in the Maryland house of representatives, and was its speaker for one year. fte was elected to the second congress, serving from 24 October, 1791, till 2 March, 1793.--The first Philip Barton's nephew, Francis Scott, author, born in Frederick county, Maryland, 9 August, 1780; died in Baltimore, Maryland, 11 January, 1843, was the son of John ]toss Key, a Revolutionary officer, he was educated at St. John's college, studied law in the office of his uncle, Philip Barton Key, and began to practise law in Frederick City, Maryland, but subsequently removed to Washington. where he was district attorney for the District of Columbia. When the British invaded Washington in 1814, Ross and Cockburn with their staff officers made their headquarters in Upper Marlboro, Maryland, at the residence of a planter, Dr. William Beanes, whom they subsequently seized as a prisoner. Upon hearing of his friend's capture, Key resolved 'to release him, and was aided by President Madison, who ordered that a vessel that had been used as a cartel should be placed at his service, and that John S. Skinner, agent for the exchange of prisoners, should accompany him. General Ross finally consented to Dr. Beanes's release, but said that the party must be detainedduring the attack onBaltimore. Key andSkinner were trans.... ferred to the frigate "Surprise," commanded by the admiral's son, Sir Thomas Cockburn, and soon afterward returned under guard of British sailors to their own vessel, whence they witnessed the engagement. Owing to their position the flag at Fort McHenry was distinctly seen through the night by the glare of the battle, but before dawn the firing ceased, and the prisoners anxiously watched to see which colors floated on the ramparts. Key's feelings when he found that the stars and stripes had not been hauled down found ex-pressrun in "The Star-Spangled Banner," which gained for him a lasting reputation. On arriving in Baltimore he finished the lines which he had hastily written on the back of a letter, and gave them to Captain Benjamin Eades, of the 27th Baltimore regiment, who had participated in the battle of North Point. Seizing a copy from the press, Eades hastened to the old tavern next to the Hol-liday street theatre, where the actors were accustomed to assemble. Mr. Key had directed Eades to print above the poem the direction that it was to be sung to the air "Anacreon in Heaven." The verses were first read aloud by the printer, and then, on being appealed to by the crowd, Ferdinand Durang mounted a chair and sang them for the first time. In a short period they were familiar throughout the United States. A collection of Key's poems was published with an introductory letter by Roger B. Taney (New York, 1857). James Lick bequeathed the sum of 860,000 for a menu-ment to Key, to be placed in Golden Gate park, San Francisco, California, and it was executed by William W. Story in Rome in 1885-'7. The height of this monument is fifty-one feet. It consists of a double arch, under which a bronze figure of Key is seated. It is surmounted by a bronze statue of America with an unfolded flag. The material is travertine, a calcareous stone of a reddish yellow hue, extremely porous, but of great durability.--Francis Scott's grandson, John Ross, artist, born in Baltimore, Maryland, 16 July, 1837, studied art in Munich and Paris for several years, after which he removed to Chicago, and then to Boston, where he exhibited about one hundred of his pictures, including "Marblehead Beach," "Ochre Point, Newport, ," "Morning Stroll," and a view of "The Golden Gate, San Francisco," for which he received a medal at the Centennial exhibition of 1876. His "Cloudy Morning, Mount Lafayette," was at the National academy, New York, in 1878. He has been successful in his works in black and white.

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