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Philippe de Rigaud Vaudreuil

Philippe de Rigaud Vaudreuil -  A Stan Klos Website

VAUDREUIL, Philippe de Rigaud, Marquis de, governor of Canada, born in the castle of Vaudreuil, near Castelnaudary, France, in 1640; died in Quebec, 11 October, 1725. He was a brigadier-general in the French army, and distinguished himself at the siege of Valenciennes. He was sent to Canada as commander of the forces, and was then known as Chevalier de Vaudreuil.

 

With 300 men he went to the relief of Montreal during the massacre of Lachine, and served under Frontenae in his expedition against the Iroquois. He was engaged in 1690 in the detente of Quebec against the attack of Admiral Phipps, and in 1693 surprised and defeated La Chaudière Noire, the most astute and terrible of the Iroquois chiefs.

 

In 1702 he obtained a seigniory, and was appointed governor of Montreal, and in 1703 he became governor of Canada as successor to M. de Callières. In 1710 he engaged in the defense of Quebec, and at the same time made preparations for the relief of Montreal. After Louis XV became king, Vaudreuil effected many reforms in the colony, and his measures, civil or military, were usually successful.

 

--His eldest son, Louis Philippe de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil, French naval officer, born in Quebec, Canada, in 1691; died in Rochefort, France, 27 November, 1763, entering the Canadian militia at the age of sixteen, rose rapidly in the service, and held the rank of major at the death of his father. He then returned to France, joined the navy as lieutenant, and was again employed in Canada for several years.

 

In 1738 he was post-captain and commanded the navy in Canada. During the war for the succession of Austria he fought at Cape Breton, and for his valor at the battle off Cape Finisterre, 25 October, 1747, was promoted chef d'escadre. Louis XV caused Carl Van Loo to paint a picture that represented Vaudreuil disengaging the flagship when it was surrounded by superior forces, and a copy was presented to the officer, while the original is still preserved in the museum at Versailles.

 

He was promoted lieutenant-general in 1753, fought with credit in the seven years' war, defended Marie-Galante in the West Indies against the English, and was governor of Santo Domingo in 1761 '2.

 

--Another son, Pierre François, Marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnal, governor of Canada, born in Quebec in 1698; died in Paris, France 20 October, 1765, founded the branch of Vaudreuil-Cavagnal, and was first known as Chevalier de Cavagnal. He entered the military service, and attained the rank of major in the Marine corps. In 1733 he was appointed governor of Three Rivers, and in 1742 of Louisiana, in which capacities he gained great popularity. In 1755 he was appointed governor of Canada.

 

His relations with Montcalm, commander of the troops in Canada were unfriendly, and this lack of harmony between the highest civil and military authorities in the colony doubtless tended to hasten the end of French power in North America. In September, 1759, the British defeated Montcalm and captured Quebec, and in the spring of 1760 Vaudreuil capitulated to General Amherst at Montreal.

 

General Levis, who was in command of the troops at Montreal at the time of the surrender, opposed the capitulation; but opposition was useless. Such, however, was not the view that was taken of the capitulation and of some other of Vaudreuil's official actions by the home authorities, and on his return to France he was imprisoned in the Bastille on charges preferred by friends of Montcalm.

 

He was afterward tried before the Chatelet de Paris, the result being that the allegations were shown to be baseless, and he was absolved from all blame in his administration of the affairs of Canada. He was consequently released from imprisonment, but with the loss of nearly all his money and property.

 

--Another son, Pierre François de Rigaud, Chevalier de Vaudreuil, born in Quebec in 1704; died in Versailles, France, in 1772, was a brave and capable officer. He took Fort Massachusetts from the British, gained a victory over Colonel Parker on Lake St. Sacrement, sunk twenty bateaux, and took five officers and 160 men prisoners.

 

He visited France, prevailed on the government to dispatch Montcalm, Levis, Bourlamaque, and Bougainville to Canada, and assembled at St. John the army that subsequently besieged the forts at Oswego and Ontario, and made the last attempt to detach the Iroquois from the British in 1757. He was successively lieutenant-governor of Quebec, and governor of Three Rivers and Montreal.

 

--Louis Philippe's son, Louis Philippe de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil, naval officer, born in Quebec, 28 October, 1724; died in Paris, France, 14 December, 1802, entered the navy as midshipman in 1740, and rose rapidly in the service, being promoted ensign in 1747 and captain in 1754. On 19 May, 1759, he fought a brilliant engagement with was made Knight of St. Louis. He was promoted post-captain, administered the government of the island La Desirade, in the West Indies, in 1765-'8, was made brigadier of the naval forces in 1773, and chef d'escadre early in 1777. He commanded a division under Count d'Orvilliers at the battle of Ouessant, 27 July, 1778, and in December, 1778, took charge at Brest of a squadron of two ships of the line, two frigates, and three corvettes.

 

After storming Fort St. Louis, in Senegal, and securing rich prizes on the African coast, he conveyed troops to Martinique and Santo Domingo, and, joining Count d'Estaing's army, participated in the capture of Grenada and in the attack on St. Lucia. He assisted also in the siege of Savannah in 1779, and assumed command of the fleet when the admiral led the French columns to the assault. Returning to Brest toward the close of the year, he escorted a convoy of troops to Santo Domingo in February, 1780, escaping by skilful maneuvering the superior fleet of Admiral Kempenfelt, and brought safely several prizes to Fort Royal, Martinique. Joining Count de Guichen's fleet, he commanded the first division at the engagements with the English in the channel of Dominica on 17 April and 15 and 19 May, 1780, which resulted in a victory for the French.

 

In July following he was given the grand cross of St. Louis and made governor of Santo Domingo, but he soon resigned, as he preferred active service at sea, and took command of a division in Count de Grasse's fleet, assisting in the engagement with Admiral Graves in Chesapeake Bay and in the siege of Yorktown.

 

At the battle in the channel of the Saintes Islands, 12 April, 1782, he escorted the convoy that was destined to attack Jamaica, but was unable to take part in the action. Count de Grasse attributing his capture to Vaudreuil, the latter was court-martialed at Lorient in March, 1784, but the finding of the court, 21 May, 1784, was that "Vaudreuil's conduct during all the circumstances of the battle deserved nothing but praise."

 

He was promoted lieutenant-general, 14 August, 1782, and in December following carried Rochambeau's army from Boston and Providence to Santo Domingo. He was elected to the states-general in 1789 by the nobility of Castelnaudary, served as a member on the naval committee of the assembly, and during the night of 5 to 6 October, 1789, forcing an entrance in the palace of Versailles with a few officers, protected the royal family from outrage and kept the mob at bay till the arrival of succor.

 

In 1791 he emigrated to London, but he returned to Paris in 1800, and was granted by Napoleon Bonaparte a pension on the retired list of the navy.

 

--Philippe's grandson, Jean François de Rigaud de Paule, Count de Vaudreuil, better known as COUNT DE PAULE-VAUDREUIL, French soldier, born in Port au Prince, Santo Domingo, 2 March, 1740; died in Paris, 10 January, 1817, was the son of Jean Paul François, governor of Santo Domingo and other French possessions in the West Indies for several years.

 

The son entered the navy and served during the seven years' war, in 1756-'63, as aide-de-camp to Marshal Prince de Soubise, attaining the rank of lieutenant-general. He was a great favorite at court, and was made grand falconer by Louis XVI. He emigrated in 1789 to Turin with the Count d'Artois, accompanying the latter everywhere till the restoration of 1814, when he was created a peer of France and appointed governor of the royal palace of the Louvre.

 

--Another grandson, Jean Louis de Rigaud, Count de Vaudreuil, French soldier, born in Cape Français in 1762; died in Paris, 20 April, 1816, entered the army in 1777 as lieutenant, went to America with Rochambeau, served as aide-de-camp to Chevalier de Chastellux, and was at Yorktown in October, 1781. He was promoted colonel in 1785, emigrated to Germany in 1789, served in the army of Conde, and after the restoration of Louis XVIII became master of the king's wardrobe.

 

 

Edited Appletons Encyclopedia by John Looby, Copyright © 2001 StanKlos.comTM

 

VAUDREUIL, Philippe de Rigaud, Marquis de, governor of Canada, born in the castle of Vaudreuil, near Castelnaudary, France, in 1640; died in Quebec, 11 October, 1725. He was a brigadier-general in the French army, and distinguished himself at the siege of Valenciennes. He was sent to Canada as commander of the forces, and was then known as Chevalier de Vaudreuil. With 300 men he went to the relief of Montreal during the massacre of Lachine, and served under Frontenae in his expedition against the Iroquois. He was engaged in 1690 in the detente of Quebec against the attack of Admiral Phipps, and in 1693 surprised and defeated La Chaudidre Noire, the most astute and terrible of the Iroquois chiefs. In 1702 he obtained a seigniory, and was appointed governor of Montreal, and in 1703 he became governor of Canada as successor to M. de Callidres. In 1710 he engaged in the defence of Quebec, and at the same time made preparations for the relief of Montreal. After Louis XV. became king, Vaudreuil effected many reforms in the colony, and his measures, civil or military, were usually successful.--His eldest son, Louis Philippe de Rigaud, Marquis de, French naval officer, born in Quebec, Canada, in 1691; died in Rochefort, France, 27 November, 1763, entering the Canadian militia at the age of sixteen, rose rapidly in the service, and held the rank of major at the death of his father. He then returned to France, joined the navy as lieutenant, and was again employed in Canada for several years. In 1738 he was post-captain and commanded the navy in Canada. During the war for the succession of Austria he fought at Cape Breton, and for his valor at the battle off Cape Finisterre, 25 October, 1747, was promoted chef d'escadre. Louis XV. caused Carl Van Loo to paint a picture that represented Vaudreuil disengaging the flagship when it was surrounded by superior forces, and a copy was presented to the officer, while the original is still preserved in the museum at Versailles. He was promoted lieutenant-general in 1753, fought with credit in the seven years' war, defended Marie-Galante in the West Indies against the English, and was governor of Santo Domingo in 1761 '2.--Another son, Pierre Francois, Marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnal, governor of Canada, born in Quebec in 1698; died in Paris, France 20 October, 1765, founded the branch of Vaudreuil-Cavagnal, and was first known as Chevalier de Cavagnal. He entered the military service, and attained the rank of major in the marine corps. In 1733 he was appointed governor of Three Rivers, and in 1742 of Louisiana, in which capacities he gained great popularity. In 1755 he was appointed governor of Canada. His relations with Montcalm, commander of the troops in Canada were unfriendly, and this lack of harmony between the highest civil and military authorities in the colony doubtless tended to hasten the end of French power in North America. In September, 1759, the British defeated Montcalm and captured Quebec, and in the spring of 1'i60 Vaudreuil capitulated to General Amherst at Montreal. General Levis, who was in command of the troops at Montreal at the time of the surrender, opposed the capitulation; but opposition was useless. Such, however, was not the view that was taken of the enpitulation and of some other of Vaudreuil's official actions by the home authorities, and on his return to Prance he was imprisoned in the Bastile on charges preferred by friends of Montcalm. He was afterward tried before the Chatelet de Paris, the result being that the allegations were shown to be baseless, and he was absolved from all blame in his administration of the affairs of Canada. He was consequently released from imprisonment, but with the loss of nearly all his money and property.--Another son, Pierre Francois de Rigaud, Chevalier de Vaudreuil, born in Quebec in 1704; died in Versailles, Prance, in 1772, was a brave and capable officer. He took Port Massachusetts from the British, gained a victory over Colonel Parker on Lake St. Sacrement, sunk twenty bateaux, and took five officers and 160 men prisoners. He visited France, prevailed on the government to despatch Montcalm, Levis, Bourlamaque, and Bougainville to Canada, and assembled at St. John the army that subsequently besieged the forts at Oswego and Ontario, and made the last attempt to detach the Iroquois from the British in 1757. He was successively lieutenant-governor of Quebec, and governor of Three Rivers and Montreal.--Louis Philippe's son, Louis Philippe de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil, naval officer, born in Quebec, 28 October, 1724; died in Paris, France, 14 December, 1802, entered the navy as midship: man in 1740, and rose rapidly in the service, being promoted ensign in 1747 and captain in 1754. On 19 May, 1759, he fought a brilliant engagement with was made Knight of St. Louis. He was promoted post-captain, administered the government of the island La Desirade, in the West Indies, in 1765-'8, was made brigadier of the naval forces in 1773, and chef d'escadre early in 1777. He commanded a division under Count d'Orvilliers at the battle of Ouessant, 27 July, 1778, and in December, 1778, took charge at Brest of a squadron of two ships of the line, two frigates, and three corvettes. After storming Fort St. Louis, in Senegal, and securing rich prizes on the African coast, he conveyed troops to Martinique and Santo Domingo, and, joining Count d'Estaing's army, participated in the capture of Grenada and in the attack on St. Lucia. He assisted also in the siege of Savannah in 1779, and assumed command of the fleet when the admiral led the French columns to the assault. Returning to Brest toward the close of the year, he escorted a convoy of troops to Santo Domingo in February, 1780, escaping by skilful manoeuvring the superior fleet of Admiral Kempenfelt, and brought safely several prizes to Fort Royal, Martinique. Joining Count de Guichen's fleet, he commanded the first division at the engagements with the English in the channel of Dominica on 17 April and 15 and 19 May, 1780, which resulted in a victory for the French. In July following he was given the grand cross of St. Louis and made governor of Santo Domingo, but he soon resigned, as he preferred active service at sea, and took command of a division in Count de Grasse's fleet, assisting in the engagement with Admiral Graves in Chesapeake bay and in the siege of Yorktown. At the battle in the channel of the Saintes islands, 12 April, 1782, he escorted the convoy that was destined to attack Jamaica, but was unable to take part in the action. Count de Grasse attributing his capture to Vaudreuii, the latter was court-martialed at Lorient in March, 1784" but the finding of the court, 21 May, 1784, was that " Vaudreuil's conduct during all the circumstances of the battle deserved nothing but praise." He was promoted lieutenant-general, 14 August, 1782, and in December following carried Rochambeau's army from Boston and Providence to Santo Domingo. He was elected to the states-general in 1789 by the nobility of Castelnaudary, served as a member on the naval committee of the assembly, and during the night of 5 to 6 October, 1789, forcing an entrance in the palace of Versailles with a few officers, protected the royal family from outrage and kept the mob at bay till the arrival of succor. In 1791 he emigrated to London, but he returned to Paris in 1800, and was granted by Napoleon Bonaparte a pension on the retired list of the navy.--Philippe's grandson, Jean Francois de Rigaud de Panle, Count de, better known as COUNT DE PAULE-VAUDREUIL, French soldier, born in Port au Prince, Santo Domingo, 2 March, 1740; died in Paris, 10 January, 1817, was the son of Jean Paul Francois, governor of Santo Domingo and other French possessions in the West Indies for several years. The son entered the navy and served during the seven years' war, in 1756-'63, as aide-de-camp to Marshal Prince de Soubise, attaining the rank of lieutenant-general. He was a great favorite at court, and was made grand falconer by Louis XVI. He emigrated in 1789 to Turin with the Count d'Art ois, accompanying the latter everywhere till the restoration of 1814, when he was created a peer of France and appointed governor of the royal palace of the Louvre.--Another grandson, Jean Lonis de Rigaud, Count de, French soldier, born in Cape Francais in 1762; died in Paris, 20 April, 1816, entered the army in 1777 as lieutenant, went to America with Rochambeau, served as aide-de-camp to Chevalier de Chastellux, and was at Yorktown in October, 1781. He was promoted colonel in 1785, emigrated to Germany in 1789, served in the army of Conde, and after the restoration of Louis XVIII. became master of the king's wardrobe.

Edited Appletons Encyclopedia, Copyright © 2001 VirtualologyTM

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