Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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GILLMORE, Quincy Adams, soldier, born in Black River, Lorain County, Ohio, 28 February, 1825. His father was one of the pioneer settlers of Ohio. The childhood of the son was spent on the farm; his studies began at the Norwalk, Ohio, academy, and for three winters preceding his twentieth birthday he taught a district-school, and attended two terms at the high-school at Elyria, Ohio. A poem that he read at a public exhibition attracted the attention of a member of congress, who offered him the nomination as a cadet at the United States military academy. He was graduated in 1849, at the head of his class, assigned to the engineers, and after serving three years at Hampton Roads was appointed instructor in practical military engineering at West Point, and subsequently treasurer and quartermaster at the academy. He was protnoted 1st lieutenant in the engineer corps in 1856, and was on duty in New York City when the civil war opened. In August, 1861, "he was appointed captain in his own corps, and engineer - in-chief of the Port Royal expedition llniier General Thomas W. Sherman. The reduction of Fort Pulaski, defending the water approach to Say an-nab, a strong fortification, isolated in the centre of a marsh Island that was entirely surrounded by deep water, was very essential to the success of this expedition, but was regarded by the ablest engineers of both armies as impracticable. Captain Gillmore, then acting brigadier-general, planned the establishment of eleven batteries of mortars and rifled guns on Tybee island, a mile distant, which occupied two months of incessant day and night labor. The bombardment, which opened at 8 A. M., 10 April, 1862, and which was conducted under his very minute, detailed instructions as to elevation, charge, direction, intervals between shots, etc., for each piece, resulted by 2 P. M. of the following day in the surrender of the fort, which had been so shattered as to be untenable. This exploit, for which he was brevetted lieutenant colonel, United States army, 1 April, 1862, placed Captain Gillmore in the front rank of American engineers and artillerists. He was assigned to important commands in Kentucky in August, 1862, defeated General Peagram at Somerset in March, 1863, for which he was brevetted colonel, and in June, 1863, was given command of the Department of the South, comprising all territory occupied by Union troops on the coasts of South Carolina, Georgia., and Florida. In July he was placed in command of the 10th army corps, and in the autumn of the same year he won new laurels by his operations on Morris island, for which he was brevetted brigadier-general" the reduction of Fort Sumter, and the taking of Fort Wagner and Battery Gregg, which operations were characterized by great professional skill and boldness, and which constituted a new era in the science of engineering and gunnery. For these services he was made major general of volunteers. In 1864 he commanded the 10th army corps at James River, was engaged in the landing at Bermuda Hundred and the action at Swift's creek, commanded the column that turned and captured the line in front of Drury's Bluff, and covered General Butler's retreat into intrenchments at Bermuda Hundred. In July of the same year he commanded two divisions of the 19th army corps in the defense of Washington, and in 1865 was again in charge of the Department of the South. Resigning his com- mission as major general of volunteers, in December, 1865, he returned to service in the engineer bureau at Washington, and was subsequently ap- pointed engineer-in-chief of all the fortifications and harbor and River improvements on the Alantic coast south of New York. He was promoted major in June, 1863, lieutenant colonel in 1874, and colonel, 20 February, 1883. He was president of the Mississippi River commission, which was created by congress in 1879, of the boards of engineers for the improvement of Cape Fear River, North Carolina, and the Potomac River and flats; as well as of several boards for important harbor improvements in process of construction according to his plans. As one of the judges at the Centennial exhibition of 1876 he made special and voluminous reports on " Portland, Roman, and Other Cements and Artificial Stones," and on "Brickmaking Machinery, Brick-Kilns, Perforated and Enamelled Bricks and Pavements." Rutgers College has given him the degree of Ph. D. General Gillmore's works upon professional subjects are esteemed among the highest authorities in their class. They include "Siege and Reduction of Fort Pulaski" (New York, 1862); "Limes, Hydraulic Cements, and Mortars" (1863) ; "Engineering and Artillery Operations against Charleston in 1863" (1865; supplement, 1868); "Beton, Coignet, and Other Artificial Stones" (1871); "The Strength of the Building Stone of the United States " (1874); and " Roads, Streets, and Pavements" (1876).
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