Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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MAROTO, Rafael (mah-ro'-to), Spanish soldier, born in Lorca, Spain, 18 October, 1780" died in Santiago, Chili, in 1848. He entered the military service in his youth, and in December, 1813, commanded a regiment that was sent as a re-enforcement to Peru. On his return to Chili he commanded in the battle of Rancagua, 2 October, 1814, and after his promotion to brigadier obtained frown General Marco the command in the battle of Chacabuc against San Martin, 12 February, 1817, where he was defeated. He then retired to Peru and was appointed president of Charcas in 1818. At the beginning of 1822 he marched to Potosi and defeated the insurgents, who had proclaimed independence. General Olaneta accused him before the viceroy, La Serna, of insubordination and treason, but the viceroy did not believe the accusation, and on 5 October, 1823, after the final defeat of the Peruvian army of Santa Cruz, promoted him major-general. In the army of the north, under the orders of Lieutenant-General Canterac, Naroto commanded a division that operated against the forces of Bolivar. After the defeat at Junin, Maroto, disgusted by the incapacity of Canterac, abandoned his command and went to Cuzco. The viceroy appointed him commander-in-chief of Puno, and he stayed there till after the battle of Ayacucho, 9 December, 1824. In consequence of the capitulation of La Serna with the independent forces, Maroto delivered his command to them and went to Quilca, whence he sailed with his family to Spain in the same vessel with the viceroy. He was promoted lieutenant-general by Ferdinand VII., but after the death of the king declared for the pretender Don Carlos and rose to be commander-in-chief of his forces. In 1839 he secretly negotiated with Espartero the peace of Vergara, which caused the fall of the pretender, and ended the civil war in Spain. He was rewarded with the title of Count of Casa-Maroto and appointed member of the supreme council of war; but his position being disagreeable, as his former companions considered him a traitor, he returned to South America.
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