Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
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CLOSSE, Raphael Lambert, Canadian soldier, born in St. Denis de Mogres, near Tours, France, about 1620; died in Montreal, 6 February, 1662. He came to Canada with Maisonneuve in 1642, and was made sergeant-major of the garrison of Montreal, acting as notary in times of peace. This settlement was exposed to attack from Indians, and he soon became noted for his skill in fighting the hostile tribes. He trained his men as sharp-shooters, and armed them with musket, pistol, and sword. Each was instructed to pick his man, shoot him with the musket, then rush on and take another with the pistol, using the sword at close quarters, and gaining the cover of the trees when possible. By such tactics, when once sent with twenty men to rescue four who were besieged in a redoubt at Point St. Charles, he routed the hostile force, killing thirty-two of them, though he lost four of his men at the first fire. On 26 July, 1651, with sixteen men, after an engagement that lasted all day, he defeated a party of Indians that had penetrated to the HStel Dieu in Montreal. On 14 October, 1652, he contended with a force of 300 Iroquois near the fort, and, protected by an old hut, defeated them with a loss of fifty killed and thirty-seven wounded, his own loss being but one killed and one wounded out of a force of thirty-four. In 1655 he was acting governor of Montreal during the absence of Maisonneuve. On 6 February, 1662, he was sent with twelve soldiers to rescue some workmen who had been attacked by Iroquois; but he was deserted by his servant, his pistol missing fire, and he was killed, together with three of his party. In 1658 the fief of St. Lambert was bestowed upon him as a reward for his services, and in 1672 another was bestowed upon his widow.
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