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Richard Lee

LEE, Richard, statesman, born in Shropshire, England, toward the end of the 16th century; died in Virginia. He belonged to one of the oldest families in England. The founder of the family, Launcelot Lee, received from William the Conqueror a princely estate in Essex. In 1192 Lionel Lee, first Earl of Lichfield, raised a company of knights, at the head of which he accompanied Richard Coeur-de-Lion in the third crusade. He won his earldom by gallant conduct at the siege of Acre. One of his descendants, Richard Lee, in 1542, accompanied the unfortunate Earl of Surrey in his expedition against the Scotch Borderers. His grandson, Richard, the subject of this article, was member of the privy council of Charles I., and early in the reign of that monarch emigrated to Virginia with a number of followers, whom he settled upon lands improved at his own expense. He made several voyages to England, bringing back settlers each time, and finally made his home in Northumberland county. For many years he was secretary to Sir William Berkeley. on the death of Charles I., Berkeley and Lee declared allegiance to his son, and invited the fugitive royalists to come to Virginia. More than 300 came toward the end of 1649. In the following year Charles II. was invited to come himself to Virginia as its ruler. In 1652 the victorious parliament sent an expedition to Virginia, and a treaty was made in virtue of which Berkeley was removed and a provisional government established. While Charles II. was at Breda, Lee visited him there, to learn whether he could undertake to protect the colony in case it should again declare its allegiance to him" but, as no assurance of support could be obtained, he returned to Virginia, and took no further measures until Cromwell's death. Berkeley and Lee then issued a proclamation of allegiance to Charles II. as "King of England, France, Scotland, Ireland, and Virginia." The assembly nevertheless consulted the dictates of prudence in acknowledging obedience to Richard Cromwell. In recognition of its loyalty, Charles afterward allowed Virginia to quarter its arms with those of England, France, Scotland, and Ireland, with the motto "En dat Virginia quintam" after the union of England with Scotland, in 1707, this was changed to "En dat Virginia quartam," "Behold, Virginia makes the fourth." Hence, according to the younger Richard Henry Lee, the title of "Old Dominion," often given to Virginia. According to William Lee, his great-grandson, the founder of the Lees of Virginia was "a man of good stature, comely visage, enterprising genius, sound head, vigorous spirit, and generous nature" --qualities that may be recognized in many of his descendants.--His second son, Richard, died in Virginia after 1690, was educated at Oxford, and devoted his life to study, being especially proficient in Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. He was a member of the , governor's council. He married Miss Corbin, of Staffordshire, and left five sons, Richard, Philip, Thomas, Francis, Henry, and one daughter, who married the second William Fitzhugh.--Thomas, third son of the preceding, died in Virginia in 1750, was for many years president of the courteft. He organized a company for the exploration and settlement of-ands in the Ohio valley, but the scheme was premature and unsuccessful. It is said that he once remarked to one of his friends that he "had no doubt this country would in time declare itself independent of Great Britain, and that the seat of its government would be near the little falls of the Potomac river." At the time of his death he had just been appointed royal governor of Virginia. During his life the original manor-house, built by Richard, was burned, and Queen Caroline sent him a sum of money with which to replace it. He then built Stratford House, which is represented in the illustration, and which is still standing. He married Hannah, daughter of Colonel Philip Ludwell, of Green Spring, near Williamsburg, whose father had been governor of North Carolina. By this marriage he had six sons, Philip Ludwell, Thomas Ludwell, Richard Henry, Francis Lightfoot, William, and Arthur, and two daughters.--His second son, Thomas Ludwell, statesman, born in Stafford, Virginia, about 1730; died in 1777, studied law and was admitted go the bar. He took an active part in public affairs, was a member of the Virginia house of burgesses, a delegate to the conventions of July and December, 1775, and was also a member of the committee of safety. In the convention of May, 1776, he was appointed one of a committee to draft a declaration of rights and a plan of government. On the organization of the Virginia state government he was one of the five "revisors," and was afterward elected a judge of the general court.--Richard Henry, statesman, born in Stratford, Westmoreland County, Virginia, 20 January, 1732; died in Chantilly, Virginia, 19 June, 1794, was third son of Thomas. At an early age he was sent over to England and educated at the academy of Wakefield in Yorkshire. In 1752 he returned to Virginia. The wealth of his family was such that it was not necessary for him to earn a living, but, without any view to professional practice, he applied himself with great diligence to the study of law. Not only English but Roman law occupied his attention, and he was an earnest student of history. In 1757 he was appointed justice of the peace for Westmoreland county. In 1761 he was elected to the house of burgesses, of which he remained a member until 1788. Extreme diffidence for some time prevented his taking any part in the debates. His first speech was on a motion "to lay so heavy a duty on the importation of slaves as effectually to put an end to that iniquitous and disgraceful traffic within the colony of Virginia." On this occasion his hatred of slavery overcame his diffidence, and he made a powerful speech containing the germs of the principal arguments used in later days by the northern Abolitionists. He was an energetic opponent of the stamp-act, and in 1765 formed an association of citizens of Westmoreland county for the put-pose of deterring all persons from undertaking to sell stamped paper. A Tory gentleman in the neighborhood accepted the office of stamp-collector, and boasted that he would force the stamped paper upon the people in spite of all opposition. Mr. Lee, being then captain of a volunteer company of light horse, at once went with his men to this gentleman's house and made him deliver up his commission as collector and all the stamped paper in his possession, and bind himself by oath never again to meddle with such matters; the commission and the obnoxious paper were thereupon burned with due ceremony in a bonfire on the lawn. At the news of the Townshend acts of 1767, Mr. Lee moved, in the house of burgesses, a petition to the king, setting forth in pointed terms the grievances of the colonies. In July, 1768, he wrote a letter to John Dickinson, suggesting that all the colonies should appoint select committees "for mutual information and correspondence between the lovers of liberty in every province." The suggestion was in harmony with the views of the famous "circular letter" of the Massachusetts assembly, written by Samuel Adams and lately sent forth to all the colonies. There has been some discussion as to whether Adams or Lee is to be credited with the first suggestion of those remarkable "committees of correspondence" which organized the American Revolution. The earliest suggestion of such a step, however, is to be found in a letter from the great Boston preacher, Jonathan Mayhew, to James Otis, in June, 1766. The letter just mentioned from Lee to Dickinson seems to have come next in point of date, and at the same time Christopher Gadsden appears to have received from Lee a letter of similar purport. Mr. Lee may or may not nave heard of Mayhew's suggestion. The idea was one that might naturally have occurred to several of these eminent men independently. The machinery of committees of correspondence was first actually set in motion by Samuel Adams, as between the towns of Massachusetts, in 1772. The project of intercolonial committees was first put into practical shape by the Virginia house of burgesses in the spring of 1773, on motion of the youthful Dabney Cart, brother-in-law of Thomas Jefferson. Mr. Lee was a member of the Virginia committee then appointed, and about this time he wrote to Samuel Adams a letter, which was the beginning of the lifelong friendship between the two great leaders. In August, 1774, Mr. Lee was chosen delegate to the 1st Continental congress just about to assemble at Philadelphia. He was member of the committees for stating the rights of the colonies, for enforcing commercial non-intercourse with Great Britain, and for preparing suitable addresses to the king and to the colonies--Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Georgia, and the Floridas--that had not sent delegates to the congress. In the 2d congress he drew up the address to the people of Great Britain, which, along with a last petition to the king, was carried over to London by Richard Penn in August, 1775. About this time Mr. Lee was chosen lieutenant of Westmoreland county, an office which, after the analogy of the lord-lieutenancy of a county in England, gave him command of the militia; hence he is often addressed or described, in writings of the time, as "Colonel Lee." For more than a year he had openly and warmly advocated a declaration of independence; and after the Virginia, convention, 17 May, 1776, had instructed its delegates in congress to propose such a measure, it was Lee who took the foremost part. On 7 June he moved "that these united colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states; and that all political connection between them and the state of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved." The motion was seconded by John Adams. Congress deferred action for three weeks, in order that more definite instructions might be received from the middle colonies. During the interval Mr. Lee was called home by the illness of his wife, so that Mr. Jefferson was appointed in his place as chairman of the committee for preparing a draft of the proposed declaration. For the same reason, the task of defending the motion, when taken up for discussion, fell mainly upon John Adams, who had seconded it. During the next four years Mr. Lee served on more than a hundred committees, and his labors in congress were so arduous as to injure his health, so that he was several times obliged to go home and devote himself to recruiting his strength. In 1780-'2 he did not take his seat in congress, inasmuch as the affairs of Virginia seemed to require his presence in the assembly of that state. Besides the business of defence against the British army then operating in the southern states, two questions of great importance were then debated in Virginia. The one related to the propriety of making a depreciated paper currency a legal tender for debts, the other was brought up by a proposal to repudiate all debts to British merchants contracted by citizens of Virginia before the beginning of the war. In these debates Mr. Lee took strong ground against paper money, and he vehemently condemned the repudiation of debts, declaring that it were better to be "the honest slaves of Great Britain than to become dishonest freemen." After the peace he devoted much time to considering the best method of funding the public debt of the state, and providing for the revival of public credit. On 30 November, 1784, he was chosen president of the Continental congress. At the end of the presidential term of one year he returned to Virginia, but in 1787 was sent again to the congress. He was not a member of the convention at Philadelphia which in the summer of that year framed our Federal constitution; and when the new constitution was reported to congress, he earnestly opposed its adoption. He thought it provided for a consolidated national power that would ultimately destroy the state governments and end in a centralized despotism. His correspondence at this time with Samuel Adams, who was inclined to entertain the same fears, is very instructive. These misgivings were shared by Patrick Henry and many other patriotic Virginians, and the first senators elected by their state were Lee and Grayson, in opposition to two Federalists, one of whom was James Madison. who had been foremost in the constructive work of the great convention. As senator, Mr. Lee proposed the tenth amendment to the constitution in these words: "The powers not delegated by the constitution to the United States, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively." The amendment, as adopted, substituted the word "granted" for "delegated," and added at the end the words "or to the people." Though at first an Anti-Federalist, Mr. Lee came to be a warm supporter of Washington's administration, and especially approved of his course in the affair of "citizen" Genet. In 1792 he was obliged by failing health to resign his seat in the senate and retire to his estate at Chantilly, where he spent the last two years of his life Mr. Lee was tall and graceful in person and striking in feature. His voice was clear and rich, and his oratory impressive. He did not waste time in rhetoric, but spoke briefly and to the point. His ideas were so lucid and his expression so forcible that when he sat down after a few weighty words it used to seem as if there were no more to be said on the subject. His capacity for work was great, though sometimes limited by poor health; as Dr. Rush said, "His mind was like a sword too large for its scabbard." He was twice married, and left, by his first wife, a Miss Aylett, two sons and two daughters; by his second, a Miss Pinkard, two daughters. His life has been written by his grandson, Richard Henry Lee, of Leesburg, Virginia, "Memoir of the Life of Richard Henry Lee, and his Correspondence" (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1825). See also Bishop Meade's "Old Churches, Ministers, and Families of Virginia," vol. ii., pp. 135-143.-Francis Lightfoot, signer of the Declaration of Independence, born in Stratford, Westmoreland County, Virginia, 14 October, 1734; died in Richmond, Virginia, 3 April, 1797, was fourth son of Thomas Lee. He was educated at home, having for tutor a Scotch clergyman named Craig. In 1765 he was elected to the house of burgesses for Lou-don county. In 1772 he married Rebecca, daughter of Co!. John Tayloe, of Richmond county, and established his residence in that county, which he was forthwith chosen to represent in the house of burgesses, he was elected delegate to the Continental congress, 15 August, 1775, on the resignation of Colonel Bland, and was re-elected in the three following years. He signed the Declaration of Independence, and was a member of the committee that drew up the articles of confederation. He rendered good service in the debates on the Newfoundland fisheries and the navigation of the Mississippi, insisting that no peace should be made with Great Britain unless she conceded the American demands upon both these points. In the spring of 1779 he retired from congress, and, except for a brief service in the Virginia legislature, took no further part in public affairs. A short sketch of his life is to be found in the ninth volume of Sanderson's "Biography of the Signers to the Declaration of Independence " (Philadelphia, 1827).--William, diplomatist, born in Stratford, Virginia, in 1737; died at Green Spring, Virginia, 27 June, 1795, was fifth son of Thomas Lee. He engaged in mercantile business in London, and was for a time agent for Virginia. In 1773 he was elected sheriff of Middlesex, and in 1775 alderman of London. After the breaking out of the war he accompanied his brother Arthur to France, where early in 1777 he was appointed commercial agent for the United States at Nantes. He was afterward appointed commissioner to the Hague, and to Berlin and Vienna, but, owing to the unwillingness of the neutral powers to offend Great Britain by receiving an American commissioner, he was obliged to remain a great part of the time in Paris. In 1778 an Amsterdam merchant, Jan de Neufville, procured a loan for the United States from Holland, and was allowed by Van Berckel, burgomaster of Amsterdam, to meet Lee at. Aix-la-Chapelle, to confer with him about the matter. During the conference Lee and Neufville drew up a commercial treaty to be adopted by congress and the states-general. This document, with Neufville's signature, re-enforced by that of Van Berekel, was sent to Philadelphia, anal in October, 1780, was found among the papers of Henry Laurens, who was taken prisoner by a British cruiser while on his way to the Hague to negotiate a loan. This document furnished the British ministry with a pretext for declaring war upon Holland. During 1779 William Lee was concerned in his brother Arthur's quarrel with Franklin at Paris, which ended in the recall of the two brothers by congress.--Arthur, diplomatist, born in Stratford, Westmoreland County, Virginia, 20 December, 1740; died in Urbana, Middlesex County, Virginia, 12 December, 1792, was sixth trod youngest son of Thomas Lee. He was educated at Eton, whence he went to the University of Edinburgh and obtained the degree of M.D. He gave especial attention to botany and to materia medica; and his Latin treatise on the botanical character and medicinal uses of Peruvian bark obtained a prize and was published by the university. After taking his degree, he travelled in Holland and Germany, then returned to Virginia and began the practice of medicine at Williamsburg. But presently, in the excitement that ensued upon the passage of the stamp-act, he made up his mind to go to London and study law, with a view to a political career, and in the hope of being able to do good service in England as an advocate of the constitutional rights of the Americans. In 1766 he was accordingly settled in London as a student in the Temple. He continued the study of law until 1770, and before he left England in 1776 he acquired a lucrative practice. He took an active part in the discussions concerning the Townshend acts and other measures relating to America, and won fame as the author of the "Monitor's Letters," "An Appeal to the English Nation," and "Junius Americanus." He was one of the leading members of a society of gentlemen called "Supporters of the Bill of Rights," in which the measures of the ministry were discussed. One of the published resolutions of this society required "from any candidate whom the members of the society would support for election to parliament a pledge to seek the restoration to America of the essential right of taxation by their own representatives, and a repeal of all acts passed in violation of this right since the year 1763." John Wilkes was a member of this society, and Mr. Lee, as author of the resolution just mentioned, sustained an interesting discussion with the mysterious writer of the "Letters of Junius." During these years Mr. Lee numbered among his friends such men as Burke, Priestley, Dunning, Barrd, and Sir William Jones, and was chosen a fellow of the Royal society, in 1770 he was appointed by the assembly of Massachusetts to serve as agent for that colony in London, in association with Franklin. In August, 1775, he was associated with Richard Penn in the fruitless attempt to lay before the king the last petition from the Continental congress. In November of that year the congress appointed Franklin, Jay, and Dickinson a committee for the purpose of secretly corresponding with the friends of the colonies in other parts of the world, and this committee appointed Mr. Lee their secret agent in London. In this capacity he entered into negotiations with the French government, at first through the mediation of Caron de Beaumarchais, afterward directly with Count Vergennes. He spent the spring and summer of 1776 in Paris, and in the autumn was appointed by congress joint commissioner with Dr. Franklin and Silas Deane for the purpose of securing a treaty of alliance with France. In the following summer he was intrusted with special missions to the courts of Spain and Prussia. After the conclusion of the French treaty, it was decided to appoint a minister plenipotentiary in place of the joint commission, and Franklin was accordingly appointed in October, 1778, while Lee continued for another year to serve as sole commissioner to Spain and acting commissioner to Prussia. During his residence in Paris he became involved in bitter quarrels with his fellow commissioners, and was connected with the unjust charges against Silas Deane which led to the virtual exile of that unfortunate gentleman. It may be said in Lee's behalf that appearances were against Dearie at the time, and his conduct was never satisfactorily explained until the discovery of Beaumarchais's papers by M. de Lomenie in a Paris garret in 1857. It can hardly be questioned, however, that Lee gave abundant evidence of a morbidly suspicious and quarrelsome disposition. By the autumn of 1779 his attacks upon Franklin had become so virulent, and his conduct in general so troublesome, that he was recalled by congress. In 1781 he was elected member of the Virginia assembly, and from 1782 till 1785 was a member of the Continental congress. In 1784 he was appointed on a commission for making treaties with the northwestern tribes of Indians, and travelled on this business through the western districts of New York and Pennsylvania. From 1784 till 1789 he was a member of the "Board of Treasury" by which the desperate financial affairs of the confederation were managed. The last three years of his life were spent on his estate at Urbana. He was opposed to the adoption of the Federal constitution. His biography has been written by his grand-nephew, Richard Henry Lee, "Life of Arthur Lee, with his Political and Literary Correspondence" (2 vols., Boston, 1829). A large number of his papers on political and diplomatic subjects were deposited in the library of Harvard university, and a descriptive catalogue of them has been published in the "University Bulletin," edited by Justin Winsor (1879). A full account of the quarrels at Paris is given in the second volume of Parton's "Life of Franklin." See also Lomenie's "Beaumarchais et son temps" (2 vols., Paris, 1858).--Henry, soldier, born at Leesylvania, Westmoreland County, Virginia, 29 January, 1756; died on Cumberland island, Georgia, 25 March, 1818, was grandson of Henry, the younger brother of Thomas Lee, of Stratford. His father, also named Henry, was for many years a member of the house of burgesses. His mother was Miss Lucy Grymes, for whom Washington in early youth entertained an unrequited passion she is once or twice alluded to in Washington's correspondence as the "Lowland beauty." Henry Lee was graduated at Princeton in 1774, and two years afterward, at the nomination of Patrick Henry, he was appointed captain of one of the six companies of Virginia cavalry that formed the legion commanded by Colonel Theodoric Bland. In September, 1777, Captain Lee, with his company, joined Washington's army in Pennsylvania. In January, 1778, he was promoted for gallant conduct to the rank of major, and placed in command of an independent partisan corps, consisting of two troops of horse, to which a third troop, together with a small body of infantry, was afterward added. This peculiar corps came to be known as "Lee's legion," and its young commander received the affectionate nickname of "Light-horse Harry." With great skill and daring, oil 19 July, 1779, he surprised the British garrison at Paulus Hook, and carried off 160 prisoners, losing but five of his own men. For this affair he was presented by congress with a gold medal. In the autumn of 1780, after the disastrous battle of Camden, having been promoted lieutenant-colonel, he was sent to South Carolina with his legion, to join the army just reorganized under command of General Greene. In the famous retreat through North Carolina in February, 1781, Lee's legion covered the rear of the American army and was engaged in some lively skirmishing with Tarleton's dragoons. When Greene crossed the Dan into Virginia, he left Lee on the south side of the river, to act in concert with Pickens in watching and harassing the enemy and keeping up the spirits of the Whigs in that part of the country. In the discharge of these duties Lee was unsuccessful in his attempts to surprise Tarleton, but defeated a body of 400 Loyalists under Colonel Pyle. His legion was actively engaged in the desperate battle at Guilford, where it proved itself more than a match for Tarleton's dragoons. When Greene returned into South Carolina to drive Lord Rawdon from Camden, he detached Lee and Marion to operate against Fort Watson, which commanded Rawdon's communications with the sea coast. By a very skilful operation Fort Watson was forced to surrender, and consequently Rawdon, although victorious in the battle of Hobkirk's Hill, was compelled, by the cutting of his line of communications, to abandon the all-important strategic point of Camden. Colonel Lee next captured Fort Motte and Fort Granby, and on 5 June, after a siege of sixteen days, Augusta surrendered to him. He then rejoined Greene, and was engaged in the siege of Ninety-Six. In the brilliant battle of Eutaw Springs, 8 September, he played a very important part, and captured great numbers of the enemy in the pursuit that followed. Throughout this eventful year Colonel Lee showed himself remarkably fertile in conceiving plans, and swift in executing them. At the close of the campaign he returned to Virginia, married his second cousin, Matilda, daughter of Philip Ludwell Lee, and thus came into possession of Stratford House, where he spent the latter part of his life. In 1786 he was chosen delegate to the Continental congress, and in 1788 was a member of the convention called by Virginia to decide upon the ratification of the Federal constitution. In the remarkable debates that followed in the convention he earnestly and ably seconded the efforts of Madison and Marshall in defence of the constitution, and won distinction for his eloquence. In 1789-'91 he was member of the Virginia legislature, and in 1792-'5 was governor of the state. When the whiskey insurrection, in the summer of 1794, broke out in western Pennsylvania, President Washington appointed Lee as general to command the army of 15,000 men sent against the insurgents. The presence of so large a force made it possible to quell the insurrection without bloodshed. In 1799 General Lee was elected to congress, and on the death of General Washington he was appointed to deliver an oration commemorating the services of that great man. Upon this occasion Lee uttered the famous phrase, "First in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen." In 1801 General Lee retired into private life. In August, 1812, he happened to be in Baltimore at the time of the riot occasioned by the conduct of the "Federal Republican," a Federalist, newspaper, in opposing the war; and in the effort to defend the property of his friend, the editor, from the violence of the mob, General Lee received injuries from which he never recovered. He visited the West Indies in the hope of restoring his health, but died on his journey homeward, while stopping at the house of Mrs. Shaw, daughter of his old friend, General Greene. By his first wife, Matilda Lee, he had a son and a daughter; by his second wife, Anne Carter, he had three sons and two daughters. His "Memoirs of the War in the Southern Department of the United States" (Philadelphia, 1812; second ed., with additions by his son, Henry Lee, Washington, 1827; third ed., revised, with a biography of the author, by his son, R. E. Lee. New York, 1869), written in 1809, is an excellent book. There is no full and satisfactory biography of General Lee. An engraving of his portrait by Stuart, with a brief biographical notice, may be found in the third volume of "The National Portrait Gallery," by James B. Longacre and James Herring (Philadelphia, 1836).--His brother, Charles, attorney-general, born in 1758; died in Fauquier county, Virginia, 24 June, 1815, studied law in Philadelphia under Jared Ingersoll, and was admitted to the bar. He was sent as a delegate to the Continental congress, and afterward served as a member of the Virginia assembly. He was naval officer of the district of the Potomac till 1795, when he was appointed on 10 December United States attorney-general. This office he filled until 1801. He was subsequently offered the chief-justiceship of the supreme court by President Jefferson, but declined. --His son, Henry, author, born in Westmoreland county, Virginia, in 1787; died in Paris, France, 30 January, 1837, was graduated at William and Mary college in 1808. He served in the war of 1812, having been appointed by President Madison a major in the 12th regiment, designed chiefly for interior defence, but soon went to the Canadian frontier as aide to General James Wilkinson and afterward to General George Izard. On his return from Canada he met in New York Lord Jeffrey, the "Edinburgh" reviewer, and both men were much sought after in society on account of their brilliant conversational powers. At the close of the war Major Lee retired to his estate in Virginia. He was first impelled to authorship by the publication of Judge William Johnson's "Life of General Greene," in which he considered that both his father's good name and that of the latter's "Legion" were unjustly assailed. He resolved to defend both, and did so in an octavo volume entitled "The Campaign of 1781 in the Carolinas" (Philadelphia, 1824). Major Lee, haying been by education and conviction attached to the Federal school in politics, was proscribed by the dominant party. On the nomination of General Jackson, who had, in 1812, opposed this proscription, he became one of the most influential advocates of the latter's election, publishing a series of essays in his support. As a reward he was appointed consul at Algiers, where he went in 1829; but, the appointment not being confirmed by the senate, he remained there less than a year. Journeying through Italy on his way home, he met Madame Mere, the mother of Napoleon. His admiration of the latter's Italian campaigns induced him to vindicate Napoleon from slander. He was somewhat delayed in the execution of this task by the necessity of entering the field again in defence of his father's memory from assaults in the published writings of Jefferson. After the completion of his "Observations on the Writings of Thomas Jefferson" (New York, 1832; Philadelphia, 1839), he devoted himself to his "Life of Napoleon," of which only one volume was published before his death (New York, 1835). Subsequently this instalment together with the additional matter he had prepared, was issued in a single volume with the title, "The Life of Napoleon Bonaparte down to the Peace Of Tolentino, and the Close of his First Campaign in Italy" (London and Paris). --Richard Henry's grandson, Samuel Phillips, naval officer, born in Fairfax county, Virginia, 13 February, 1812, entered the United States navy in 1825, was commissioned lieutenant in 1837, commander in 1855, captain in 1862, commodore in 1866, and rear-admiral in 1870. In 1861 he commanded the war-sloop "Oneida" in the attack on Fort Jackson and Fort St. Philip, and in various battles on the Mississippi river from New Orleans to Vicksburg. In 1862 he was ordered to the command of the North Atlantic blockading squadron. He was assigned to the Mississippi squadron in 1864, and in December of this year, when General John B. Hood was advancing upon Nashville. and the safety of the National troops under General George H. Thomas largely depended on the prompt arrival of re-enforcements and supplies, Lee kept open Cumberland river, which was the only channel of communication. During this campaign he received a vote of thanks from congress. He was p, 'esident of the board to examine volunteer officers for admission into the regular navy in 1866-'7, and at the latter date commanded the North Atlantic fleet. In 1873 he was retired. He published "The Cruise of the 'Dolphin'" in the "Reports of the United States Naval Department" (Washington, 1854). --Another grandson of Richard Henry, Richard Henry, author, born in Westmoreland county, Virginia, in 1794; died in Washington, Pennsylvania, 3 January, 1865, was son of Ludwell Lee. He was graduated at Dickinson in 1812 and studied law, but in 1833 accepted a chair in Washington college, Pennsylvania He took orders in 1856, and was rector of a church there till his death. He published "Memoirs of the Life of Richard Henry Lee" (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1825); "Life of Arthur Lee" (2 vols., Boston, 1829); and "Life of Harriet Preble" (New York. 1856).

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Samuel Johnston
Elected but declined the office

Thomas McKean

John Hanson

Elias Boudinot

Thomas Mifflin

Richard Henry Lee

John Hancock
[
Chairman David Ramsay]

Nathaniel Gorham

Arthur St. Clair

Cyrus Griffin

  

Constitution of 1787
U.S. Presidents

George Washington 

John Adams
Federalist Party


Thomas Jefferson
Republican* Party

James Madison 
Republican* Party

James Monroe
Republican* Party

John Quincy Adams
Republican* Party
Whig Party

Andrew Jackson
Republican* Party
Democratic Party


Martin Van Buren
Democratic Party

William H. Harrison
Whig Party

John Tyler
Whig Party

James K. Polk
Democratic Party

David Atchison**
Democratic Party

Zachary Taylor
Whig Party

Millard Fillmore
Whig Party

Franklin Pierce
Democratic Party

James Buchanan
Democratic Party


Abraham Lincoln 
Republican Party

Jefferson Davis***
Democratic Party

Andrew Johnson
Republican Party

Ulysses S. Grant 
Republican Party

Rutherford B. Hayes
Republican Party

James A. Garfield
Republican Party

Chester Arthur 
Republican Party

Grover Cleveland
Democratic Party

Benjamin Harrison
Republican Party

Grover Cleveland 
Democratic Party

William McKinley
Republican Party

Theodore Roosevelt
Republican Party

William H. Taft 
Republican Party

Woodrow Wilson
Democratic Party

Warren G. Harding 
Republican Party

Calvin Coolidge
Republican Party

Herbert C. Hoover
Republican Party

Franklin D. Roosevelt
Democratic Party

Harry S. Truman
Democratic Party

Dwight D. Eisenhower
Republican Party

John F. Kennedy
Democratic Party

Lyndon B. Johnson 
Democratic Party 

Richard M. Nixon 
Republican Party

Gerald R. Ford 
Republican Party

James Earl Carter, Jr. 
Democratic Party

Ronald Wilson Reagan 
Republican Party

George H. W. Bush
Republican Party 

William Jefferson Clinton
Democratic Party

George W. Bush 
Republican Party

Barack H. Obama
Democratic Party

Please Visit

Forgotten Founders
Norwich, CT

Annapolis Continental
Congress Society


U.S. Presidency
& Hospitality

© Stan Klos

 

 

 

 


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