Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
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ANDERSON, Robert, soldier, born at "Soldier's Retreat," near Louisville, Kentucky, 14 June 1805; died in Nice, France, 2'7 October 1871. He graduated at West Point in 1825, and was appointed second lieutenant in the 3d artillery. He served in the Black Hawk war of 1832 as colonel of the Illinois volunteers. In 1835-'37 he was instructor of artillery at West Point, and in 1837-'38 he served in the Florida war, and was brevetted captain. Subsequently he was attached to the staff of General Scott as assistant adjutant-general, and was promoted to captain in 1841. He served in the Mexican war, and was severely wounded at Molino del Rey. In 1857 he was appointed major of the 1st artillery, and on 20 November 1860, he assumed command of the troops in Charleston harbor, with headquarters at Fort Moultrie. Owing to threatened assaults, he withdrew his command, on the night of 26 December to Fort Sumter, where the confederate forces soon closely invested him. On 13 April 1861, he evacuated the fort, after a bombardment of nearly thirty-six hours from batteries to which he replied as long as his guns could be worked. He marched out, with his seventy men, with the honors of war, on the 14th, saluting his flag as it was hauled down, and sailed for New York on the following day. In recognition of this service he was appointed Brigadier-General in the United States army by President Lincoln, and was assigned to the command of the department of Kentucky, and subsequently to that of the Cumberland. In consequence of failing health, he was relieved from duty in October 1861. He was retired from active service 27 October 1863, and on 3 February 1865, he was brevetted Major-General. He sailed for Europe in 1869 for his health, but died there. He translated and adapted from the French "Instructions for Field Artillery, Horse and Foot" (1840), and "Evolutions of Field Batteries" (1860), both of which have been used by the war department. It was largely owing to his personal efforts that the initial steps were taken organizing the Soldiers' Home in Washington, which now harbors about 2,000 veterans of the regular army.
His brother, Larz, capitalist, born near Louisville, Kentucky, 9 April 1803; died in Cincinnati, Ohio, 27 February 1878, was graduated at Harvard in 1822. He was a son-in-law of Nicholas Longworth, of Cincinnati, in which city he resided and was respected for his profuse charities and public spirit.
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