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Robert Hare

HARE, Robert, scientist, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 17 January, 1781; died there, 15 May, 1858. He was the son of an English emigrant who early established a large brewery in Philadelphia, of which the active management soon fell into the hands of the son. He followed a course of lectures on chemistry and physics in Philadelphia, and before he had attained the age of twenty was a member of the Chemical society of Philadelphia, to which he communicated in 1801 a description of his important discovery of the oxyhydrogen blow-pipe, which he called a " hydrostatic blow-pipe." The original paper was published with the title "Memoir on the Supply and Application of the Blow-Pipe" (Philadelphia, 1802). The elder Silliman, who was engaged with him in a series of experiments with this instrument in 1802-'3, subsequently distinguished it as the "compound blow-pipe." " This apparatus," says Silliman, "was the earliest and, perhaps, the most remarkable of his original contributions to science." He read a supplementary paper giving an " Account of the Fusion of Strontivres and Volatilization of Platinum, and also a new Arrangement of Apparatus " before the American philosophical society in June, 1803. By means of this apparatus he was the first to render lime, magnesia, iridium, and platinum fusible in any considerable quantity, and the so-called Drummond and calcium lights are simply applications of the principles discovered by him. Among his other inventions is the valve-cock or gallows-screw, by means of which communication between cavities in separate pieces of apparatus is made perfectly air-tight. He devised improved forms of the voltaic pile with which the intense powers of extended series of voltaic couples were used long in advance of similar combinations in Europe. In 1816 he invented the calorimotor, a form of battery by which a large amount of heat is produced. A modified form of this apparatus, devised in 1820 and called the deflagrator, was employed in 1823 in volatilizing and fusing carbon. It was with these batteries that the first application of voltaic electricity to blasting under water was made in 1831, and the expertments were conducted under the direction of Dr. Hare. He also attained a high reputation as a chemist, and was the author of a process for de-narcotizing laudanum, and also of a method for detecting minute quantities of opium in solution. In 1818 he was called to the chair of chemistry and natural philosophy in William and Mary, and during the same year was made professor of chemistry in the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania, where he remained until 1847. His course of instruction was marked by the originality of his experiments and of the apparatus that he employed, which was frequently of unusual dimensions. His valuable collection of chemical and physical apparatus was presented to the Smithsonian institution on his resignation from his professorship in 1847. In later years he became a convert to Spiritualism, and lectured in its advocacy. Dr. Hare received the honorary degree of M.D. from Yale in 1806, and frown Harvard in 1816. In 1839 he was the first recipient of the Rumford premium for his oxyhydrogen blow-pipe, and his improvements in galvanic apparatus. Dr. Hare was a member of the American academy of arts and sciences, of the American philosophical society (1803), and an honorary life-member of the Smithsonian institution. His contributions to scientific literature were large. In Silliman's "American Journal of Science" alone he published nearly 200 papers. Besides contributions to other scientific periodicals, he was the author of moral essays in the "Portfolio," writing frequently under the pen-name of Eldred Grayson, and of "Brief View of the Policy and Resources of the United States " (Philadelphia, 1810); "Chemical Apparatus and Manipulations" (1836);" Compendium of the Course of Chemical Instruction in the Medical Department of the University of Pennsylvania" (1840); " Memoir on the Explosiveness of Nitre" (Washington, 1850); and "Spiritualism Scientifically Demonstrated " (New York, 1855).--His son, John Innes Clark, jurist, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 17 October, 1816, was graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1834, and after studying law was admitted to the bar in 1841. Ten years later he was elected associate judge of the district court of Philadelphia, and in 1867 became presiding judge. In 1875 he was made presiding judge of the court of common pleas in Philadelphia, which office he still holds. He received the degree of LL. D. in 1868 from the University of Pennsylvania, of which he was a trustee in 1858-'68, and in which he was for some time professor of institutes of law. In conjunction with Horace B. Wallace he published "American Leading Cases in Law" (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1847); and has edited "Smith's Leading Cases in Law" (2 vols., 1852), "White and Tudor's Leading Cases in Equity" (3 vols., 1852); and "Hare on Contracts" (1887); also "The New English Exchequer Reports."--Robert's nephew, George Emlen, clergyman, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 4 September, 1808, was graduated at Union in 1826. He was ordained deacon by Bishop White, 20 December, 1829, and before his ordination to the priesthood was chosen rector of St. John's church, Carlisle, Pennsylvania, where he remained several years. He was afterward rector of Trinity church, Princeton, New Jersey he was assistant professor of Latin and Greek at the University of Pennsylvania in 1844-'5, and subsequently had charge of the academy of the Protestant Episcopal church in Philadelphia, being also rector of St. Matthew's. He undertook after this the instruction of the diocesan training school, which soon grew into the Philadelphia divinity school. He has continued in the faculty of the latter more than twenty-five years, most of the time as professor of biblical learning, and is now professor of New Testament literature. He served many years on the standing committee of the diocese of Pennsylvania, and has been often a delegate to the general convention. He was one of the American committee for the revision of the Old Testament translation. Columbia gave him the degree of S. T. D. in 1843, and the University of Pennsylvania that of LL. D. in 1873.--George Emlen's son, William Hobart, P. E. bishop, born in Princeton, New Jersey, 17 May, 1838, was educated in part at the University of Pennsylvania, but, on account of trouble with his eyes, he left before graduation. He was ordained deacon, 19 June, 1859, by Bishop Bowman, and priest, 25 May, 1862, by Bishop Alonzo Potter. During his deaconate he was assistant minister in St. Luke's church, Philadelphia. In May, 1861, he became rector of St. Paul's, Chestnut Hill, where he remained for two years. In 1863 he was in charge of St. Luke's, Philadelphia, during the absence of the rector, and in 1864 was elected rector of the Church of the Ascension in the same city. He next became secretary and general agent of the foreign committee of the board of missions, which office he filled for several years. In 1871 Dr. Hare was elected by the house of bishops missionary bishop of Cape Palmas and parts adjacent, in West Africa, but declined the appointment. In October, 1872, he was elected missionary bishop of Niobrara, and was consecrated in St. Luke's, Philadelphia, , 9 January, 1873. He received the degree of D. D. from three colleges in 18'73. At the general convention of 1883 the Indian missionary jurisdiction of Niobrara was changed and extended. It now embraces the southern part of Dakota, and, by vote of the house of bishops, he was placed in charge, with the title of "Missionary Bishop of South Dakota." Bishop Hare deposed a missionary, Reverend S. D. Hinan, on charges of immorality, and, to vindicate his action, sent a communication to the board of missions. For this, Hinman sued him for libel in the New York courts, and obtained a verdict for $10,000, but after appeals the judgment was reversed.

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