Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
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IRVING, Roland Duer, geologist, born in New York city, 27 April, 1847. He was graduated at Columbia college school of mines in 1869 as a mining engineer, and in 1879 received the degree of Ph.D. from that institution. Soon after his graduation he became assistant on the Ohio geological survey, and in 1870 was elected professor of geology, mining, and metallurgy in the University of Wisconsin. In 1879 the title of his chair was changed to that of geology and mineralogy, which professorship he has since held. He became assistant state geologist of Wisconsin in 1878, and continued as such until 1879. During 1880-'2 he was one of the United States census experts, and in 1882 was made geologist in charge of the Lake Superior division of the United States geological survey. His specialty is the micro-petrography of the fragmental rocks and crystalline schists, and his best work has been accomplished in the direction of pre-Cambrian stratigraphy and the genesis of some of the so-called crystalline rocks, particularly of the quartzites and ferruginous iron rocks of the Lake Superior regions. Professor Irving is a member of scientific societies to whose transactions he has contributed important papers. His publications under the auspices of the Wisconsin geological survey, include "Geology of Central Wisconsin" (Madison, 1877); "Geology of the Lake Superior Region" (1880); "Crystalline Rocks of the Wisconsin Valley" (1882); "Mineralogy and Lithology of Wisconsin" (1888); and he has contributed the reports of the United States geological survey to "The Copper-Bearing Rocks of Lake Superior" (Washington, 1888); "On Secondary Enlargements of Mineral Fragments in Certain Rocks" (1884); with Charles R. Vanhise, "The Archaen Formations of the Northwestern States" (18S5); with Thomas C. Chamberlain, "The Junction between the Eastern Sandstone and the Keweenaw Series, Keweenaw Point, Lake Superior" (1885); and "The Classification of the Early Cambrian and Pre-Cambrian Formations" (1886).
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