Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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INGULF, Rudolf, surnamed Ingulf yon Koln, German explorer and sculptor, born in Cologne in 1727; died in Vienna in 1785. He began life as a merchant, from 1751 till 1763 lived in Mexico, where he managed a German factory, and, after gaining an independent fortune, followed his taste for travel. He set out in 1764, and for' five years visited the most remote parts of Mexico; thence he crossed the isthmus of Panama, and advanced as far as New Granada. Returning to New Spain, he entered California, and was the first: to ascertain that it was a rich gold-field, announcing that fact to the world in his "Lehrbuch der Geographie yon Californien" (Leipsie, 1771). But the hint was neglected, and his theories, which relied on a critical examination of the nature of the soil and the geodesic formation of it, were ignored. Among his other publications are "Reisen in Neu Spanien" (2 vols., Leipsic, 1772, in 4to); "Die geologischen Formationen yon Californien" (Vienna., 1775). These works were eagerly consulted at the time of the subsequent discoveries of gold in California, but never enjoyed the popularity they deserved. His "Kosmographie yon Amerika" (Vienna, 1779, with charts), although defective in many points, is considered as one of the best works of the kind published in the last century, and a copy of the original edition has been sold for 700 thalers. As a sculptor Ingulf won during his life a higher reputation than as an author. His bust of Endymion, the group of "Mars and Venus wounded by Diomede," the busts of Columbus, Pizarro, and Velasquez, and his group of "Indians imploring Spaniards," in Berlin, place him among the best German sculptors of the last century.
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