Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
and Company, 1887-1889 and 1999. Virtualology.com advises that these 19th Century
biographies, although edited, still contain period bias.
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CURWEN, Samuel, loyalist, born in Salem, Massachusetts, 28 December 1815; died there, 9 April 1802. He was graduated at Harvard in 1735, and studied for the ministry, but became a merchant in his native place. In the winter of 1774-'5 he was a captain in Sir William Pepperell's expedition against Louisburg. In 1759 he became impost officer for Essex County, Massachusetts, and in 1775 was judge of the admiralty court. >From 1775 until 1784, as a loyalist, he resided abroad, returning to his native place in the autumn of 1784. His "Journal and Letters" (New York, 1842) contains interesting and valuable information concerning the lives of loyalist exiles while abroad.
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In this powerful, historic work, Stan Klos unfolds the complex 15-year U.S.
Founding period revealing, for the first time, four distinctly different United
American Republics. This is history on a splendid scale -- a book about the not
quite unified American Colonies and States that would eventually form a fourth
republic, with only 11 states, the United States of America: We The