Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
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KIRKLAND, Samuel, clergyman, born in Nor-with, Connecticut, 1 December, 1741; died in Clinton, New York, 28 February, 1808. He was the son of Reverend Daniel Kirtland, but restored the old spelling of the family name. He was graduated at Princeton in 1765, receiving his degree, although he had left college eight months before, to go on a mission to the Six Nations. After remaining with the tribes a year and a half, and learning the Mohawk and Seneca languages, he returned to Connecticut, was ordained to the Congregational ministry, and commissioned Indian missionary by the board of correspondence of the Missionary society. He then went to Oneida, and continued to labor among the tribes, with occasional interruptions, for more than forty years. During the Revolution he was active in endeavoring to preserve the neutrality of the Six Nations, made several long journeys among the tribes, and attended numerous councils. After the battle of Lexington the provincial congress of Massachusetts formally requested his influence to secure the friendship of the Six Nations, and he succeeded in attaching the Oneidas to the patriot cause, although the other tribes, through the influence of Sir William Johnson and the Mohawk sachem Joseph Brant, had joined the British. Washington said of this mission in a letter addressed to congress in 1775" "I cannot but intimate my sense of the importance of Mr. Kirkland's station, and of the great advantages which have and may result to the united colonies from his situation being made respectable. All accounts agree that much of the favorable disposition shown by the Indians may be ascribed to his labor and influence." He became brigade chaplain to General John Sullivan in 1779, and accompanied him on the Susquehanna expedition. During the remainder of the war he was chaplain to the Continental forces at Fort Schuyler and at Stockbridge, Massachusetts When peace was declared he resumed his work among the Indians, and in 1785 he received a liberal grant of land from congress in consideration of his services among the tribes. In 1788 the Indians and the state of New York added to this gift a large and valuable tract, on which he settled and founded the present town of Kirkland. In 1791 he made a statement of the numbers and situation of the Six United Nations, and in the winter of that year conducted a delegation of forty warriors to congress in Philadelphia in order to consult as to the best method of introducing civilization among the tribes. In 1793 Mr. Kirkland established the Hamilton Oneida college (now Hamilton college), an institution for the education of American and Indian youth. See a memoir of Kirkland by his grandson, Reverend Samuel K. Lothrop, in Sparks's "American Biography."--His son, John Thorn. ton, clergyman, born in Herkimer, New York, 17 August, 1770; died in Boston, Massachusetts, 24 April, 1840, was graduated at Harvard in 1789, and began the study of theology at Stockbridge, Massachusetts, under the Reverend Stephen West, but on changing his religious views returned to Cambridge, and while preparing to enter the ministry of the Unitarian church was tutor in metaphysics at Harvard. In 1794 he was ordained and installed pastor of the New South church, Boston, continuing in that charge till 1810, when he was elected president of Harvard. Under his administration of seventeen years, the course of study was greatly enlarged, the law school established, the medical school reorganized, four different professorships in the academical department were endowed and filled, three new buildings erected, and large additions were made to the library. Princeton gave him the degree of D. D. in 1802, and Brown that of LL. D. in 1810. Dr. Kirk-land had great natural dignity of person and character, and possessed in an eminent degree a knowledge of men. His conversation was a succession of aphorisms and maxims. He was averse to literary effort, and published but few works. These include "Eulogy on Washington " (1799); "Biography of Fisher Ames" (Boston, 1809): "Discourse on the Death of Hon. George Cabot" (1823); and numerous contributions to the periodicals of the day.--Their cousin, William, author, born near Utica, New York, in 1800; died near Fishkill, New York, 19 October, 1846, was graduated at Hamilton college in 1818, was tutor there in 1820, and in 1825-'7 occupied the chair of the Latin language and literature. He resigned his professorship in 1828, and established a seminary at Geneva, New York After spending several years abroad, he removed with his family to Michigan, but returned to New York in 1842, and with Reverend Henry W. Bellows founded " The Christian Inquirer." a weekly Unitarian journal. At the time of his death he was editor of the "New York Evening Mirror." Besides many other contributions to periodical literature, he is the author of a series of " Letters from Abroad," which were never collected in book-form.--His wife, Caroline Matilda Stansbury, author, born in New York city, 12 January, 1801; died there, 6 April, 1864, was the daughter of a publisher of New York city. After his death she removed to Clinton, New York, where she married Mr. Kirkland in 1827. Her first publications were under the pen-name of " Mrs. Mary Clavers." Returning to New York in 1842, she established a girls' boarding school, and at the same time contributed to the annuals and magazines, She became the editor of the " Union Magazine," which in 1848 was removed to Philadelphia and published as " Sartain's Magazine." Mrs. Kirkland's death was caused by overwork in her efforts to make the great New York sanitary fair a success. Her works include "A New Home; Who'll Follow?" (New York, 1839); "Forest, Life" (1842); " Western Clearings" (1846); an "Essay on the Life and Writings of Spenser," prefixed to an edition of the first book of the "Fairy Queen" (1846); "Holidays Abroad " (1849); "The Evening Book, or Sketches of Western Life" (1852); "A Book for the Home Circle" (1853); "The Helping Hand" (1853); "Autumn Hours and Fireside Readings" (1854); "Garden Walks with the Poets" (1854); " Memoirs of Washington" (1857); " School-Girl's Garland" (1864); and "The Destiny of Our Country" (1864).--Their son, Joseph, author, born in Geneva, New York, 7 January, 1830, received a common school education, and since 1856 has resided in Illinois. He was successively private, lieutenant, and captain in the 12th Illinois volunteer infantry in 1861-'2, and major in 1863, and served in the Army of the Potomac. After the war he engaged in coal-mining in central Illinois and Indiana, where he made the social studies that have given their bent to his writings. Mr. Kirkland is a lawyer by profession, and is also engaged in literary work. He has published "Zury, the Meanest Man in Spring County," a story of western life (Boston, 1887).--His sister, Elizabeth Stansbury, is principal of a young ladies' school in Chicago, and has published "Six Little Cooks" (Chicago, 1875): "Dora's Housekeeping" (1877); "A Short History of France" (1878); and "Speech and Manners" (1885).
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