Virtual Museum of Art | Virtual Museum of History | Virtual Public Library | Virtual Science Center | Virtual Museum of Natural History | Virtual War Museum
   You are in: Museum of History >> Hall of North and South Americans >> Samuel Wetherill





American’s Four United Republics: Discovery-Based Curriculum

For more information go to Historic.us

 

Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1887-1889 and 1999. Virtualology.com warns that these 19th Century biographies contain errors and bias. We rely on volunteers to edit the historic biographies on a continual basis. If you would like to edit this biography please submit a rewritten biography in text form . If acceptable, the new biography will be published above the 19th Century Appleton's Cyclopedia Biography citing the volunteer editor



Virtual American Biographies

Over 30,000 personalities with thousands of 19th Century illustrations, signatures, and exceptional life stories. Virtualology.com welcomes editing and additions to the biographies. To become this site's editor or a contributor Click Here or e-mail Virtualology here.



A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

 



Samuel Wetherill

WETHERILL, Samuel, manufacturer, born in Burlington, New Jersey, 12 October, 1736; died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 24 September, 1816. His family came to New Jersey from England in 1682, and his ancestor, Christopher, gave to the Quakers the land on which their first meeting-house in Burlington, New Jersey, was erected. In earn life Samuel settled in Philadelphia as a house carpenter and builder, but afterward he entered business, and was the first manufacturer of cloth, jean, and fustian in Philadelphia. He also engaged in dyeing, fulling, and in the manufacture of chemicals, and subsequently was the first in the United States to make white lead. Toward the close of his life he abandoned his business, except the manufacture of drugs and chemicals. During the war of 1812 his firm determined to undersell foreign merchants whose goods were imported to the ruin of its business. In this it was successful; but in 1813 the establishment on Twelfth near Race street, Philadelphia, was burned, it is believed, by enemies to the manufactory. At the time of the Revolution he actively supported the cause of independence, supplying clothing gratuitously to Washington's army at Valley Forge when it was most needed; he joined with some other Quakers in military service in the defence of Philadelphia. For these actions and for taking the oath of allegiance to the United States he was disowned or excommunicated by the Quaker meeting of which he was a member. In February, 1781, several of the Quakers who had been disowned for similar causes joining with him, he founded an independent Friends' meeting, called the Society of Free Quakers, which is a society believing in defensive war, hence sometimes called "Fighting" Quakers. This society, which still exists, denies the right of excommunication for any cause. Mr. Wetherill was clerk or presiding officer of this meeting from its foundation until 1810, was a popular preacher until his death, and numbered among his audience many persons of distinction. He was instrumental in raising a large sum of money for building the Free Quaker meeting-house, obtaining the subscriptions of Benjamin Franklin, Robert Morris, John Cadwalader, and others of note. He published several short theological tracts in defence of the society. These are remarkable for their ability and forcible expression, but have long been out of print, and are extremely rare. The principal one is "An Apology for the Religious Society of Free Quakers in the City of Philadelphia, showing that all Churches who excommunicate act inconsistently with the Gospel of Jesus." --His great-grandson, Samuel, inventor, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 27 Nay, 1821, is the son of John Price Wetherill, who was vice-president of the Academy of natural sciences in his native city in 1834-'53. In 1850 Samuel began to experiment with the newly discovered product of zinc ores, and to determine whether this could be substituted for white lead as a paint. His experiments led to his engagement with the New Jersey zinc company in 1850-'2, and in the latter year he invented the "furnace process," which consists in reducing mixed coal and ore by the direct action of heat and a cold blast upon a furnace-bed having small holes, each producing the reducing flame. Subsequently he invented the tower process of separating the solid impurities, in which the velocity of the fan-attachment, which impels the products into the collecting bags, lifts the white zinc seventy feet into a tower, leaving the ashes at the base. This was afterward improved by Mr. Wetherill by causing the products thus treated to pass through a film of water. In March, 1853, with Charles J. Gilbert and several New York capitalists, he entered into a contract for forming the Pennsylvania and Lehigh zinc company, and he erected works under his patents, in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, to reduce the zinc ores in Lehigh county. These works went into operation on 13 October, 1853, when the first "zinc white" made in the United States was manufactured by Wetherill's process in combination with the bag process of collecting that was previously invented by Samuel T. Jones. The works were conducted by Gilbert and Wetherill in 1853-'7, and in that time delivered 4,725 tons of white oxide of zinc. In 1854-'9 he conducted a series of experiments for the manufacture of spelter, the first spelter from the Lehigh ores being made by him in 1854 by passing the vapor of oxide of zinc through a bed of incandescent coal in a muffle-furnace. Afterward he experimented with vertical retorts, which he patented, and his services were procured for the manufacture of metallic zinc at Bethlehem under the Pennsylvania and Lehigh zinc company. In 1857 he sent an ingot of his spelter to a firm of sheet-iron rollers, and they returned to him the first sheet of zinc that was rolled from metal extracted from Pennsylvania ores. At the beginning of the civil war Mr. Wetherill recruited a squadron for the 11th Pennsylvania cavalry, and entered service as captain on 19 August, 1861. He became major on 1 October, 1861, and was mustered out on 30 September, 1864. He was brevetted lieutenant-colonel, United States volunteers, on 13 March, 1865.--The second Samuel's brother, John Price, manufacturer, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 4 August, 1824 ; died there. 17 September, 1888, was graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1844, and engaged in the manufacture of white lead until 1878. He was identified with the commercial interests of Philadelphia, was one of the oldest members of the board of trade, of which he was for several years president, was a member of the Centennial board of finance, and a director of the American steamship company and of the Pennsylvania railroad company from 1874 till 1888. Mr. Wetherill was a member of the Constitutional convention of Pennsylvania in 1872, and was instrumental in introducing many reforms.

Edited Appletons Encyclopedia, Copyright © 2001 VirtualologyTM

Start your search on Samuel Wetherill.


 

 


 


Unauthorized Site: This site and its contents are not affiliated, connected, associated with or authorized by the individual, family, friends, or trademarked entities utilizing any part or the subject's entire name. Any official or affiliated sites that are related to this subject will be hyper linked below upon submission and Evisum, Inc. review.

Copyright© 2000 by Evisum Inc.TM. All rights reserved.
Evisum Inc.TM Privacy Policy

Search:

About Us

 

 

Image Use

Please join us in our mission to incorporate America's Four United Republics discovery-based curriculum into the classroom of every primary and secondary school in the United States of America by July 2, 2026, the nation’s 250th birthday. , the United States of America: We The People Click Here

 

Childhood & Family

Click Here

 

Historic Documents

Articles of Association

Articles of Confederation 1775

Articles of Confederation

Article the First

Coin Act

Declaration of Independence

Declaration of Independence

Emancipation Proclamation

Gettysburg Address

Monroe Doctrine

Northwest Ordinance

No Taxation Without Representation

Thanksgiving Proclamations

Mayflower Compact

Treaty of Paris 1763

Treaty of Paris 1783

Treaty of Versailles

United Nations Charter

United States In Congress Assembled

US Bill of Rights

United States Constitution

US Continental Congress

US Constitution of 1777

US Constitution of 1787

Virginia Declaration of Rights

 

Historic Events

Battle of New Orleans

Battle of Yorktown

Cabinet Room

Civil Rights Movement

Federalist Papers

Fort Duquesne

Fort Necessity

Fort Pitt

French and Indian War

Jumonville Glen

Manhattan Project

Stamp Act Congress

Underground Railroad

US Hospitality

US Presidency

Vietnam War

War of 1812

West Virginia Statehood

Woman Suffrage

World War I

World War II

 

Is it Real?



Declaration of
Independence

Digital Authentication
Click Here

 

America’s Four Republics
The More or Less United States

 
Continental Congress
U.C. Presidents

Peyton Randolph

Henry Middleton

Peyton Randolph

John Hancock

  

Continental Congress
U.S. Presidents

John Hancock

Henry Laurens

John Jay

Samuel Huntington

  

Constitution of 1777
U.S. Presidents

Samuel Huntington

Samuel Johnston
Elected but declined the office

Thomas McKean

John Hanson

Elias Boudinot

Thomas Mifflin

Richard Henry Lee

John Hancock
[
Chairman David Ramsay]

Nathaniel Gorham

Arthur St. Clair

Cyrus Griffin

  

Constitution of 1787
U.S. Presidents

George Washington 

John Adams
Federalist Party


Thomas Jefferson
Republican* Party

James Madison 
Republican* Party

James Monroe
Republican* Party

John Quincy Adams
Republican* Party
Whig Party

Andrew Jackson
Republican* Party
Democratic Party


Martin Van Buren
Democratic Party

William H. Harrison
Whig Party

John Tyler
Whig Party

James K. Polk
Democratic Party

David Atchison**
Democratic Party

Zachary Taylor
Whig Party

Millard Fillmore
Whig Party

Franklin Pierce
Democratic Party

James Buchanan
Democratic Party


Abraham Lincoln 
Republican Party

Jefferson Davis***
Democratic Party

Andrew Johnson
Republican Party

Ulysses S. Grant 
Republican Party

Rutherford B. Hayes
Republican Party

James A. Garfield
Republican Party

Chester Arthur 
Republican Party

Grover Cleveland
Democratic Party

Benjamin Harrison
Republican Party

Grover Cleveland 
Democratic Party

William McKinley
Republican Party

Theodore Roosevelt
Republican Party

William H. Taft 
Republican Party

Woodrow Wilson
Democratic Party

Warren G. Harding 
Republican Party

Calvin Coolidge
Republican Party

Herbert C. Hoover
Republican Party

Franklin D. Roosevelt
Democratic Party

Harry S. Truman
Democratic Party

Dwight D. Eisenhower
Republican Party

John F. Kennedy
Democratic Party

Lyndon B. Johnson 
Democratic Party 

Richard M. Nixon 
Republican Party

Gerald R. Ford 
Republican Party

James Earl Carter, Jr. 
Democratic Party

Ronald Wilson Reagan 
Republican Party

George H. W. Bush
Republican Party 

William Jefferson Clinton
Democratic Party

George W. Bush 
Republican Party

Barack H. Obama
Democratic Party

Please Visit

Forgotten Founders
Norwich, CT

Annapolis Continental
Congress Society


U.S. Presidency
& Hospitality

© Stan Klos

 

 

 

 


Virtual Museum of Art | Virtual Museum of History | Virtual Public Library | Virtual Science Center | Virtual Museum of Natural History | Virtual War Museum