Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
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SAUGANASH, The Indian name of Captain BILLY CALDWELL, a half-breed leader, born in Canada about 1780; died in Council Bluffs, Iowa, 28 September, 1841. His father was an irish officer in the British service, and his mother a Pottawattamie. He received a good education from the Jesuits at Detroit, could speak and write English and French, and was master of several Indian dialects. He early formed an acquaintance with Teeumseh, and from 1807 till the death of the latter they were intimate and devoted friends. The Sauganash was a faithful friend to the whites, and did all he could to mitigate the horrors of savage warfare. Although he was hostile to the whites at the time of the Chicago massacre in August, 1812, it is said that the lives of the prisoners were saved through the intercession of CMdwell and Shabona, who were not in the engagement. The Sauganash took up his residence in Chicago about 1820. In 1826 he was one of the justices of the peace there. In 1828 the Indian department, in consideration of his services, built hi, n the first frame house in Chicago. He occupied this house (near what is now the corner of North , State street and Chicago avenue) till he left the country with his tribe in 1836 for Council Bluffs. .By a treaty that was made 2 January, 1830, the Saugimash, Shabona, and other friendly Indians had reservations granted them by the government, and 1,240 acres on the north branch of the Chicago river was set apart for Cahtwell, which he sold before leaving the country. Cahtwell owed allegiance to three distinct nations at the same time. He was captain of the Indian department under Great Britain in the war of 1812, and never renounced his allegiance, was a justice of the peace in Chicago, and a chief of the Ottawas and Pottawattamies. See " Waubun, the Early Day," by Mrs. John H. Kinzie (Chicago, 1857).
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