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CAMPBELL, Sir Archibald, British soldier, born in Inverary, Scotland, in 1739: died in London, England, 31 March, 1791. He was appointed captain in the 42d regiment in October, 1758; major in December, 1760; and lieutenant colonel of the 71st regiment in 1775. While entering Boston harbor just after General Howe had departed, he was taken prisoner with a portion of his corps, and was made a subject of retaliation for the cruel treatment of captive American officers. Notwithstanding this, he afterward displayed gentleness and humanity toward his foes, when conducting active operations in the south, where he proved himself a brave and skilful commander. He led an expedition against Savannah, Georgia, in 1778, starting from Sandy Hook on 27 November with 2,000 troops and a small squadron. He landed his force on 29 December, and on the same day defeated General Robert Howe and took the city. He issued orders to commanders in the lower part of the state to treat the people leniently; and in answer to his proclamation, inviting them to join the British standard, several hundred proclaimed their loyalty. Campbell then encouraged the Tories of South Carolina to join him in an attack on Augusta, and on 29 January, 1779, marched on that City with 2,000 men. He took possession of it, but was obliged to retreat to Savannah on 13 February He became colonel on 7 December, 1779, and major general 20 March, 1782. He was governor of Jamaica from 1781 till 1784, knighted in 1785, and governor of Madras from 1785 till 1789, commanding the forces on the coast of Coromandel, East Indies. He was member of parliament for Sterling from 1774 till 1780, and again in 1789.
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