Virtual Museum of Art | Virtual Museum of History | Virtual Public Library | Virtual Science Center | Virtual Museum of Natural History | Virtual War Museum
   You are in: Museum of History >> Hall of North and South Americans >> Sir Francis Bernard





American’s Four United Republics: Discovery-Based Curriculum

For more information go to Historic.us

 

Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1887-1889 and 1999. Virtualology.com warns that these 19th Century biographies contain errors and bias. We rely on volunteers to edit the historic biographies on a continual basis. If you would like to edit this biography please submit a rewritten biography in text form . If acceptable, the new biography will be published above the 19th Century Appleton's Cyclopedia Biography citing the volunteer editor





Virtual American Biographies

Over 30,000 personalities with thousands of 19th Century illustrations, signatures, and exceptional life stories. Virtualology.com welcomes editing and additions to the biographies. To become this site's editor or a contributor Click Here or e-mail Virtualology here.



A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

 



Sir Francis Bernard

BERNARD, Sir Francis, governor of 5Iassa-chusetts Bay, born in Nettleham, Lincoln County, England, in 1714; died in Aylesbury, England, 16 June 1779. He was graduated at Oxford in 1736, studied law, and admitted to the bar at the Middle Temple, of which he afterward became a bencher. He was elected steward of the city of Lincoln, and recorder of the city of Boston in England. In 1768 he was appointed governor of the province of New Jersey, whence after two years of successful rule he was transferred to the colony of Massachusetts Bay, arriving on 5 Aug:, 1760. The earlier part of his administration of rune years was successful, as was shown by the salary of £1,300 voted to him, and the grant of the island of Mount Desert, off the coast of Maine, both of which were confirmed by the king. In 1764 the library of Harvard was destroyed by fire, and about 6,000 volumes were lost. Governor Bernard took a special interest in the College, and successfully exerted himself in raising funds in its behalf. When two parties arose*the advocates for the crown, and the defenders of the rights of the people*Bernard determined to strengthen the royal authority in the colonies, and he probably did more than any other one man toward precipitating the war of the revolution. He manifested an unhappy facility for wounding the amour-propre of the colonists. One of his first acts that aroused indignation was the appointment of Mr. Hutchinson as chief justice, instead of Colonel Otis, of Barnstable, to whom the office had been pledged. This breach of faith drew on him the hostility of James Otis, the son of Colonel Otis, who soon became a popular leader. Governor Bernard also gave special offence by refusing to confirm the nomination of several members of the council. He seemed to have no talent for conciliation, and, failing in his preliminary measures of attempted coercion to his views, he made such representations to the government that troops were ordered to Boston. He intended to overawe the people, and the act greatly excited the entire population of Massachusetts Bay, and gave an enormous impetus to the growing disaffection. The assembly requested the removal of the king's ships and troops, but Bernard refused, and business was brought to a stand-still. His con-duet drew on him the indignation of the province, but procured him, in 1769, a baronetcy in England as a reward for his "firmness and administrative ability." He had little command of his temper, could not conceal his resentments, nor restrain his censures. One of his last public measures was to prorogue the general court in July in consequence of their refusal to make provision for the support of the king's troops. But before his decree had gone into effect the general court had drafted resolutions and petitioned the king for his removal. The English government deemed it wise to recall him, although claiming that it was only on the plea of consulting him in reference to the general condition of the province. He continued nominally governor for two years longer, but never returned to America. He published "Letters to the Ministry" (1769); "Letters to the Earl of Hills-borough" (1769); and "Select Letters on the Trade and Government of America, and the Principles of Law and Polity applied to the American Colonies" (2d ed., 1774). He also edited "Antonii Alsopi Edis Christi olim Alumni Odarum libri duo" (1752). His "Letter Books" were bought by Dr. Jared Sparks in 1848, and by his will bequeathed to the library of Harvard.*His son, Sir John, Hart., was born in England in 1744; died in the West Indies in 1809. At the close of the war of independence, his sympathies having been with the colonists in their struggle with the mother country, he did not return to England. After suffering the extremes of poverty for some time, the legislature of Massachusetts, in consideration of his conduct during the war, restored to him half of the island of Mount Desert, part of his father's property, which had been confiscated. Little is known of his subsequent career in the United States. Afterward he held offices under the British government at Barbadoes and St. Vincent. At the death of his father, in 1'779, he succeeded to the title.*Sir Thomas, bart., third son of Sir Francis Bernard, was born in England about 1746; died there in 1818. When his father was appointed governor of New Jersey, he accompanied the family to America, and was graduated at Harvard in 1767. Subsequently he went to England and married a lady of fortune. On the death of his brother, Sir John, he succeeded to the title. He was the author of several essays, written to improve the condition of the humbler classes, and was noted for his benevolence.

Edited Appletons Encyclopedia, Copyright © 2001 VirtualologyTM

Start your search on Sir Francis Bernard.


 

 


 


Unauthorized Site: This site and its contents are not affiliated, connected, associated with or authorized by the individual, family, friends, or trademarked entities utilizing any part or the subject's entire name. Any official or affiliated sites that are related to this subject will be hyper linked below upon submission and Evisum, Inc. review.

Copyright© 2000 by Evisum Inc.TM. All rights reserved.
Evisum Inc.TM Privacy Policy

Search:

About Us

 

 

Image Use

Please join us in our mission to incorporate America's Four United Republics discovery-based curriculum into the classroom of every primary and secondary school in the United States of America by July 2, 2026, the nation’s 250th birthday. , the United States of America: We The People Click Here

 

Childhood & Family

Click Here

 

Historic Documents

Articles of Association

Articles of Confederation 1775

Articles of Confederation

Article the First

Coin Act

Declaration of Independence

Declaration of Independence

Emancipation Proclamation

Gettysburg Address

Monroe Doctrine

Northwest Ordinance

No Taxation Without Representation

Thanksgiving Proclamations

Mayflower Compact

Treaty of Paris 1763

Treaty of Paris 1783

Treaty of Versailles

United Nations Charter

United States In Congress Assembled

US Bill of Rights

United States Constitution

US Continental Congress

US Constitution of 1777

US Constitution of 1787

Virginia Declaration of Rights

 

Historic Events

Battle of New Orleans

Battle of Yorktown

Cabinet Room

Civil Rights Movement

Federalist Papers

Fort Duquesne

Fort Necessity

Fort Pitt

French and Indian War

Jumonville Glen

Manhattan Project

Stamp Act Congress

Underground Railroad

US Hospitality

US Presidency

Vietnam War

War of 1812

West Virginia Statehood

Woman Suffrage

World War I

World War II

 

Is it Real?



Declaration of
Independence

Digital Authentication
Click Here

 

America’s Four Republics
The More or Less United States

 
Continental Congress
U.C. Presidents

Peyton Randolph

Henry Middleton

Peyton Randolph

John Hancock

  

Continental Congress
U.S. Presidents

John Hancock

Henry Laurens

John Jay

Samuel Huntington

  

Constitution of 1777
U.S. Presidents

Samuel Huntington

Samuel Johnston
Elected but declined the office

Thomas McKean

John Hanson

Elias Boudinot

Thomas Mifflin

Richard Henry Lee

John Hancock
[
Chairman David Ramsay]

Nathaniel Gorham

Arthur St. Clair

Cyrus Griffin

  

Constitution of 1787
U.S. Presidents

George Washington 

John Adams
Federalist Party


Thomas Jefferson
Republican* Party

James Madison 
Republican* Party

James Monroe
Republican* Party

John Quincy Adams
Republican* Party
Whig Party

Andrew Jackson
Republican* Party
Democratic Party


Martin Van Buren
Democratic Party

William H. Harrison
Whig Party

John Tyler
Whig Party

James K. Polk
Democratic Party

David Atchison**
Democratic Party

Zachary Taylor
Whig Party

Millard Fillmore
Whig Party

Franklin Pierce
Democratic Party

James Buchanan
Democratic Party


Abraham Lincoln 
Republican Party

Jefferson Davis***
Democratic Party

Andrew Johnson
Republican Party

Ulysses S. Grant 
Republican Party

Rutherford B. Hayes
Republican Party

James A. Garfield
Republican Party

Chester Arthur 
Republican Party

Grover Cleveland
Democratic Party

Benjamin Harrison
Republican Party

Grover Cleveland 
Democratic Party

William McKinley
Republican Party

Theodore Roosevelt
Republican Party

William H. Taft 
Republican Party

Woodrow Wilson
Democratic Party

Warren G. Harding 
Republican Party

Calvin Coolidge
Republican Party

Herbert C. Hoover
Republican Party

Franklin D. Roosevelt
Democratic Party

Harry S. Truman
Democratic Party

Dwight D. Eisenhower
Republican Party

John F. Kennedy
Democratic Party

Lyndon B. Johnson 
Democratic Party 

Richard M. Nixon 
Republican Party

Gerald R. Ford 
Republican Party

James Earl Carter, Jr. 
Democratic Party

Ronald Wilson Reagan 
Republican Party

George H. W. Bush
Republican Party 

William Jefferson Clinton
Democratic Party

George W. Bush 
Republican Party

Barack H. Obama
Democratic Party

Please Visit

Forgotten Founders
Norwich, CT

Annapolis Continental
Congress Society


U.S. Presidency
& Hospitality

© Stan Klos

 

 

 

 


Virtual Museum of Art | Virtual Museum of History | Virtual Public Library | Virtual Science Center | Virtual Museum of Natural History | Virtual War Museum