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Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1887-1889 and 1999. Virtualology.com warns that these 19th Century biographies contain errors and bias. We rely on volunteers to edit the historic biographies on a continual basis. If you would like to edit this biography please submit a rewritten biography in text form . If acceptable, the new biography will be published above the 19th Century Appleton's Cyclopedia Biography citing the volunteer editor



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Stephen Pearl Andrews

ANDREWS, Stephen Pearl, author, born in Templeton, Massachusetts, 22 March 1812 ; died in New York City, 21 May 1886. He studied at Amherst College, and then, removing to New Orleans, became a lawyer. He was the first counsel of Mrs. Myra Clark Gaines in her celebrated suits. He was an ardent abolitionist, and in 1839 removed to Texas, where he converted many of the slave-owners, who were also large land-owners, by showing them that they would become rapidly rich from the sale of land if immigration were induced by throwing the country open to free labor. Here he acquired considerable wealth in the practice of his profession. His impetuous and logical eloquence gained him a wide repute and great personal popularity; but, on the other hand, his seemingly reckless and fanatical opposition to slavery aroused an intense feeling of opposition, and his life was seriously endangered. In 1843 he went to England in the hope that, with the aid of the British anti-slavery society, he might raise sufficient money there to pay for the slaves and make Texas a free state. He was well received, and the scheme was taken up and favorably considered by the British government; but, after some months of consultation, the project was abandoned through fear that it would lead to war with the United States, as the knowledge of it was already being used to strengthen the movement that ultimately led to the annexation of Texas and to the Mexican war. Mr. Andrews went to Boston and became a leader in the anti-slavery movement there. While in England he learned of phonography, and during seven years after his return he devoted his attention to its introduction, and was the founder of the present system of phonographic reporting. He removed to New York in 1847, and published a series of phonographic instruction-books and edited two journals in the interest of phonography and spelling reform, which were printed in phonetic type, the "Anglo-Saxon " and the "Propagandist." He spoke several languages, and is said to have been familiar with thirty. Among his works are one on the Chinese language, and one entitled "New French Instructor," embodying a new method. He was a tireless student and an incessant worker; but his mental labor was performed without effort or fatigue. While yet a young man he announced the discovery of the unity of law in the universe, and to the development of this theory he devoted the last thirty-five years of his life. The elements of this science are contained in his "Basic Outline of Universology" (New York, 1872). He asserted that there is a science of language, as exact as that of mathematics or of chemistry, forming a domain of universology; and by the application of this science he evolved a " scientific " language, destined, he believed, to become " the universal language." This scientific universal language he called "Alwato " (ahl-wah'-to). It was so far elaborated that for some years before his death he conversed and corresponded in it with several of his pupils, and was preparing a dictionary of Alwato, a portion of which was in type at the time of his decease. The philosophy evolved from universology he called "Integralism." In it he believed would be found the ultimate reconciliation of the great thinkers of all schools and the scientific adjustment of freedom and order, not by a superficial eclecticism, but by a radical adjustment of all the possible forms of thought, belief, and idea. In 1882 he instituted a series of conferences known as the " Colloquium," for the interchange of ideas between men of the utmost diversity of religious, philosophical, and political views. Among those associated with him in this were Professor Louis Elsberg, Rev. Dr. Rylance, Rev. Dr. Newman, Rabbi Gottheil, Rev. Dr. Sampson, Rev. Dr. Collyer, Professor J. S. Sedgwick, T. born Wakeman, and Rabbi Huebsch. Mr. Andrews was a prominent member of the Liberal club of New York, and for some time was its vice-president. His contributions to periodicals are numerous. He was a member of the American academy of Arts and Sciences and of the American Ethnological Society. His works include "Comparison of the Common Law with the Roman, French, or Spanish Civil Law on Entails and other Limited Property in Real Estate" (New Orleans, 1839); "Cost the Limit of Price" (New York, 1851); "The Constitution of Government in the Sovereignty of the Individual" (1851); "Love, Marriage, and Divorce, and the Sovereignty of the Individual: a Discussion by Henry James, Horace Greeley, and Stephen Pearl Andrews," edited by Stephen Pearl Andrews (1853); "Discoveries in Chinese; or, The Symbolism of the Primitive Characters of the Chinese System of Writing as a Contribution to Philology and Ethnology and a Practical Aid in the Acquisition of the Chinese Language" (1854); " Constitution or Organic Basis of the New Catholic Church " (1860); "The Great American Crisis," a series of papers published in the "Continental Monthly" (1863-'64) ; "A Universal Language" (" Continental Monthly," 1864) ; "The Primary Synopsis of Universology and Alwato" (1871); "Primary Grammar of Alwato" (Boston, 1877) ; " The Labor Dollar" (1881);" Elements of Universology" (New York, 1881); " Ideological Etymology" (1881) ; "Transactions of the Colloquium, with Documents and Exhibits " (vols. i and ii, New York, 1882-'83); "The Church and Religion of the Future," a series of tracts (1886); and textbooks of phonography. His sons published his dictionary of Alwato posthumously.

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