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PINHEIRO, Sylvestre Ferreira (peen-yi'-e-ro), Marquis de, Portuguese statesman, born in Lisbon, 31 December, 1769" died there in September, 1847. He was destined for the church, and entered the Oratorians as a novice, but left the convent on obtaining the chair of philosophy in the University of Coimbra. His liberal ideas soon excited the opposition of the clergy, and he fled in 1797 to England, to escape imprisonment. Afterward he became secretary of the Chevalier de Araujo, Portuguese minister to Paris, and in 1802 was promoted charge d'affaires in Berlin, but was dismissed in 1807 on request of Napoleon. He immediately rejoined the royal family in Brazil, and was appointed a member of the board of trade and assistant secretary of state. In 1809 he was sent as minister to Buenos Ayres to organize a court of claims and settle the boundary between the Spanish and Portuguese dominions, but he declined. He became afterward a member of the privy council, and wrote several memoirs, advocating the enfranchisement of the slaves and a parliamentary government for Brazil and Portugal. In 1815 he opposed the return of Jogo VI. to Lisbon, and after the revolution of Perto in 1821 became secretary of foreign relations and war, and proposed to the king a plan to quell the rebellion. In spite of his strenuous efforts, the weak monarch determined to return to Lisbon, up-pointed Dora Pedro regent, and left Bahia in great haste. Pinheiro tried to change the king's resolution, but, all efforts proving unavailing, he accompanied Joao to Lisbon in 1822, and was secretary of state till the suppression of the constitutional government in April, 1824, when he resigned and resided in Paris, living till 1834, occupied in literary labors. After the expulsion of Dora Miguel he returned to Lisbon, but continued to remain in private life till his death. Pinheiro's works include "Memoria sobre os vicios da administra-cao Portugueza" (Bahia, 1811); "Memoria sobre os meios de destruir a escravidao no Brazil" (1812); "Memoria sobre um governo representativo com-mum ao Portugal e ao Brazil" (1814); "Synopse de codigo do processo civil" (Paris, 1825); ".Observa-coes sobre a carta constitutional do reino de Portugal, e la constitucgo do imperio do Brazil" (3 vols., 1831); "Principes de droit public, constitutionel, administratif et des gens" (1834) ; "Observations sur la constitution du Brasil, et la charte constitutionelle du Portugal" (1835) ; and "Projecto de codigo para la naeao portugueza" (1839).
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