Virtual Museum of Art | Virtual Museum of History | Virtual Public Library | Virtual Science Center | Virtual Museum of Natural History | Virtual War Museum
   You are in: Museum of History >> Hall of North and South Americans >> Tadeusz Kosciuszko





American’s Four United Republics: Discovery-Based Curriculum

For more information go to Historic.us

 

Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1887-1889 and 1999. Virtualology.com warns that these 19th Century biographies contain errors and bias. We rely on volunteers to edit the historic biographies on a continual basis. If you would like to edit this biography please submit a rewritten biography in text form . If acceptable, the new biography will be published above the 19th Century Appleton's Cyclopedia Biography citing the volunteer editor





Virtual American Biographies

Over 30,000 personalities with thousands of 19th Century illustrations, signatures, and exceptional life stories. Virtualology.com welcomes editing and additions to the biographies. To become this site's editor or a contributor Click Here or e-mail Virtualology here.



A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

 





Click on an image to view full-sized

Tadeusz Kosciuszko

Thaddeus Kosciusko - Polish Patriot - A Klos Family Project

 

KOSCIUSZKO, Tadeusz (THADDEUS) (kos-se-us'-ko), Polish patriot, born near Novogrndek, Lithuania, 12 February, 1746; died in Solothurn, Switzerland, 15 October, 1817. He was descended from a noble Lithuanian family, studied at the military academy of Warsaw, and, completing his education in France at the expense of the state, returned to Poland, entered the army, and rose to the rank of captain. An unrequited passion for the daughter of the Marquis of Lithuania induced him to leave Poland in 1775 and offer his assistance to the Americans in their war for independence. The number of foreign auxiliary officers had become numerous, and Washington had complained to congress, in October, 1776, that he was unable to employ many of them, owing to their ignorance of English.

Kosciuszko, however, arrived with letters of recommendation from Benjamin Franklin to Washington, who inquired what he could do. " I come to fight as a volunteer for American independence," answered Kosciuszko. "What can you do?." asked Washington. "Try me," was the reply. He received his commission as a colonel of engineers on 18 October, 1776, and repaired to his post with the troops under General Gates, who described him as "an able engineer, and one of the best and nearest draughtsmen that he ever saw." and selected him for the northern service, ordering him, "after he had made himself thoroughly acquainted with the works, to point out where and in what manner the best improvements and additions could be made thereto."

Kosciuszko therefore planned the encampment and post of Gates's army at Berets Heights, near Saratoga, from which, after two well-fought actions, Burgoyne found it impossible to dislodge the Americans. Kosciuszko was subsequently the principal engineer in executing the works at West Point. He became one of Washington's adjutants, and aided General Nathanael Greene in the unsuccessful siege of Ninety-Six, receiving for his services the thanks of congress and the brevet of brigadier-general, 13 October, 1783. One of Washington's latest official acts was to intercede with congress for the bestowal of these honors. He was also made a member of the Society of the Cincinnati.

At the end of the war he returned to Poland, where he lived several years in retirement. When the Polish army was reorganized in 1789, he was appointed a major-general, and fought in defense of the constitution of 3 May, 1791, under Prince Poniatowski, against the Russians. He was in the battle of Zielence, 18 June, 1792, and in that of Dubienka, 17 July, 1792, where, with only 4,000 men, he kept 15,000 Russians at bay for six hours, making his retreat without great loss. But the patriots were overwhelmed by numbers, and when King Stanislas submitted to the second partition of Poland, Kosciuszko resigned his commission and retired to Leipsic, where he received from the national assembly the citizenship of France. He determined to make a second effort for Poland, and a rising of his countrymen was secretly planned. Kosciuszko was elected dictator and general-in-chief.

On 24 March, 1794, he suddenly appeared in Cracow, issued a manifesto against the Russians, and hastily collected a force of about 5,000 peasants, armed mostly with scythes. At Raclawice he routed a Russian corps that was almost twice as strong, and returned in triumph to Cracow. He committed the conduct of government affairs to a national council that was organized by himself, and after receiving re-enforcements moved forward in quest of the Russian army. The march was opposed by the king of Prussia at the head of 40,000 men, and Kosciuszko, whose force was only 13,000, was defeated at Szczekociny, 6 June, 1794.

Unable to check the prevailing anarchy, Kosciuszko resigned his dictatorship and retired with his army to Warsaw, and defended it against the Prussians and Russians, whom he compelled to raise the siege. Austria now took part against him with 150,000 men, and he was routed at Maciejowice, 10 October, 1794. Kosciuszko fell covered with wounds, he was imprisoned in St. Petersburg for two years, until the death of Catherine, when the Emperor Paul gave him his liberty, with many marks of esteem. The czar, in releasing him, offered him his sword, but Kosciuszko refused to accept it, saying, "I have no need of a sword; I have no country to defend." Subsequently his countrymen in the French army of Italy presented him with the sword of John Sobieski.

On crossing the Russian frontier he returned to the czar the patent of his pension and every testimonial of Russian favor, and passed the rest of his life in retirement. He visited the United States in 1797, where he was received with distinction, and obtained from congress a grant of land, in addition to the pension that he had received after the Revolutionary war. He then resided in Fontainebleau until 1814, engaged in agriculture. When Napoleon was about to invade Poland in 1806 he wished to employ Koseiuszko, who, being under parole not to fight against Russia, refused to enlist, and the proclamation to the Poles that appeared in the "Moniteur" under his name in 1806 he declared to be a forgery. In 1816 he removed to Solothurn, Switzerland, and in the following year sent a deed of manumission to all the serfs on his Polish estate. His death was caused by a fall from his horse over a precipice.

The Emperor Alexander had him interred beside Poniatowski and Sobieski in the cathedral of Cracow, near which city the people raised to his memory a mound 150 feet high, the earth of which was brought from every great battle-field of Poland. From a fancied resemblance to this mound the loftiest mountain in Australia has received the name of Mount Kosciuszko. A monument of white marble, designed by John H. B. Latrobe, and represented in the illustration, was erected to his memory at West Point by the United States military academy cadet corps of 1828, at a cost of $5,000. See Chodzko's " Histoire militaire, politique et privee de Kosciuszko" (Paris, 1837); and Falkenstein's "Leben Kosciuszko's" (Leipsic, 1825).

Edited Appletons Encyclopedia, Copyright © 2001 VirtualologyTM
Edited Appletons Encyclopedia, Copyright © 2001 VirtualologyTM

Start your search on Tadeusz Kosciuszko.


 

 


 


Unauthorized Site: This site and its contents are not affiliated, connected, associated with or authorized by the individual, family, friends, or trademarked entities utilizing any part or the subject's entire name. Any official or affiliated sites that are related to this subject will be hyper linked below upon submission and Evisum, Inc. review.

Copyright© 2000 by Evisum Inc.TM. All rights reserved.
Evisum Inc.TM Privacy Policy

Search:

About Us

 

 

Image Use

Please join us in our mission to incorporate America's Four United Republics discovery-based curriculum into the classroom of every primary and secondary school in the United States of America by July 2, 2026, the nation’s 250th birthday. , the United States of America: We The People Click Here

 

Childhood & Family

Click Here

 

Historic Documents

Articles of Association

Articles of Confederation 1775

Articles of Confederation

Article the First

Coin Act

Declaration of Independence

Declaration of Independence

Emancipation Proclamation

Gettysburg Address

Monroe Doctrine

Northwest Ordinance

No Taxation Without Representation

Thanksgiving Proclamations

Mayflower Compact

Treaty of Paris 1763

Treaty of Paris 1783

Treaty of Versailles

United Nations Charter

United States In Congress Assembled

US Bill of Rights

United States Constitution

US Continental Congress

US Constitution of 1777

US Constitution of 1787

Virginia Declaration of Rights

 

Historic Events

Battle of New Orleans

Battle of Yorktown

Cabinet Room

Civil Rights Movement

Federalist Papers

Fort Duquesne

Fort Necessity

Fort Pitt

French and Indian War

Jumonville Glen

Manhattan Project

Stamp Act Congress

Underground Railroad

US Hospitality

US Presidency

Vietnam War

War of 1812

West Virginia Statehood

Woman Suffrage

World War I

World War II

 

Is it Real?



Declaration of
Independence

Digital Authentication
Click Here

 

America’s Four Republics
The More or Less United States

 
Continental Congress
U.C. Presidents

Peyton Randolph

Henry Middleton

Peyton Randolph

John Hancock

  

Continental Congress
U.S. Presidents

John Hancock

Henry Laurens

John Jay

Samuel Huntington

  

Constitution of 1777
U.S. Presidents

Samuel Huntington

Samuel Johnston
Elected but declined the office

Thomas McKean

John Hanson

Elias Boudinot

Thomas Mifflin

Richard Henry Lee

John Hancock
[
Chairman David Ramsay]

Nathaniel Gorham

Arthur St. Clair

Cyrus Griffin

  

Constitution of 1787
U.S. Presidents

George Washington 

John Adams
Federalist Party


Thomas Jefferson
Republican* Party

James Madison 
Republican* Party

James Monroe
Republican* Party

John Quincy Adams
Republican* Party
Whig Party

Andrew Jackson
Republican* Party
Democratic Party


Martin Van Buren
Democratic Party

William H. Harrison
Whig Party

John Tyler
Whig Party

James K. Polk
Democratic Party

David Atchison**
Democratic Party

Zachary Taylor
Whig Party

Millard Fillmore
Whig Party

Franklin Pierce
Democratic Party

James Buchanan
Democratic Party


Abraham Lincoln 
Republican Party

Jefferson Davis***
Democratic Party

Andrew Johnson
Republican Party

Ulysses S. Grant 
Republican Party

Rutherford B. Hayes
Republican Party

James A. Garfield
Republican Party

Chester Arthur 
Republican Party

Grover Cleveland
Democratic Party

Benjamin Harrison
Republican Party

Grover Cleveland 
Democratic Party

William McKinley
Republican Party

Theodore Roosevelt
Republican Party

William H. Taft 
Republican Party

Woodrow Wilson
Democratic Party

Warren G. Harding 
Republican Party

Calvin Coolidge
Republican Party

Herbert C. Hoover
Republican Party

Franklin D. Roosevelt
Democratic Party

Harry S. Truman
Democratic Party

Dwight D. Eisenhower
Republican Party

John F. Kennedy
Democratic Party

Lyndon B. Johnson 
Democratic Party 

Richard M. Nixon 
Republican Party

Gerald R. Ford 
Republican Party

James Earl Carter, Jr. 
Democratic Party

Ronald Wilson Reagan 
Republican Party

George H. W. Bush
Republican Party 

William Jefferson Clinton
Democratic Party

George W. Bush 
Republican Party

Barack H. Obama
Democratic Party

Please Visit

Forgotten Founders
Norwich, CT

Annapolis Continental
Congress Society


U.S. Presidency
& Hospitality

© Stan Klos

 

 

 

 


Virtual Museum of Art | Virtual Museum of History | Virtual Public Library | Virtual Science Center | Virtual Museum of Natural History | Virtual War Museum