Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
and Company, 1887-1889 and 1999. Virtualology.com warns that these 19th Century
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HINDMAN, Thomas Carmichael, soldier, born in Tennessee in November, 1818; died in Helena, Arkansas, 28 September, 1868. After receiving a common school education, he studied law, and removed to Mississippi, where he practised his profession. He served throughout the Mexican war as lieutenant in a Mississippi regiment, and in 1858 was elected to congress as a Democrat, serving till 1861. He had been re-elected as a Secessionist, but entered the Confederate army with the appointment of brigadier-general. He first served under General Simon Buckner in Kentucky, was in command at Memphis, lost the battle of Newtonia, and having collected his forces at Van Buren, Arkansas, crossed Arkansas river with 2,500 men and was defeated t at Prairie Grove by General James G. Blunt and General Francis J. Herren. After the battle of Shiloh, where he was promoted major-general, he was transferred to Arkansas, and commanded a brigade under General Leonidas Polk. After the war he removed to the city of Mexico, but returned to the United States in 1867, and settled in Helena, Arkansas General Hindman's military career had been criticised for its severity in enforcing conscription and maintaining discipline, and he was assassinated by one of his former soldiers in revenge for some act of discipline during the war.
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