Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
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BOND, Thomas Emerson, journalist, born in Baltimore, Maryland, in February 1782; died in New York, 14 March 1856. He studied medicine in Philadelphia and Baltimore, practiced with success in Baltimore, and was called to a chair in the medical College of Maryland, which after a few years he resigned on account of failing health. For many years he was a local preacher in the Methodist Episcopal Church. During the controversy carried on from 1816 till 1830 over reform in Church government, which resulted in the secession of the opponents of the episcopate and advocates of lay representation in 1830 and the formation of the Methodist Protestant Church, he took a prominent part in the discussion. In 1827 he published an appeal to Methodists, directed against the proposed changes, in 1828 a "Narrative and Defence of the Church Authorities," and in 1831 and 1832 he defended the polity of Episcopal Methodism in a journal printed in Baltimore called the "Itinerant," of which he was editor. He subsequently edited for twelve years the "Christian Advocate and Journal," the leading Methodist organ, of which he assumed charge in 1840. He contributed important articles to the "Methodist Quarterly." *His son, Thomas Emerson, journalist, born in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1813, died in Harford County, Maryland, 18 August 1872, early became a local Methodist preacher, and also studied medicine and took his degree in Baltimore. His father was editor of the Baltimore "Christian Advocate and Journal," and young Bond became his efficient assistant, distinguished for humor and sarcastic power. In 1860, pending the difficulties that culminated in the civil war, he joined the southern Methodist Church, and gave his abilities to the cause of the south. After the close of the war he was one of the originators of the "Episcopal Methodist," the organ of the southern Church, but subsequently severed his connection with that paper and established another journal in the same interest. After publishing that for a short time he consolidated it with the " Southern Christian Advocate," published simultaneously in Baltimore and St. Louis, of which he was associate editor.*Another son, Hugh L., jurist, born in Baltimore, Maryland, 16 December 1828, was graduated at the University of the city of New York in 1848, returned to Baltimore, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1851, and practiced in Baltimore. He took part in the Know-nothing movement. In March 1860, he was appointed judge of the Baltimore criminal court, and on 5 November 1861, was elected by the people to that office, which he held during the trying times of the war. After the Massachusettsacre of national soldiers on 19 April 1861, when the city authorities decided that no more northern troops should be allowed to pass through Baltimore, he charged the grand jury that those who took part in the riot were guilty of murder. The police commissioners made an order forbidding the display of any flag; but the seventy-five loyalists that were arrested under this order for raising the national standard were discharged on habeas corpus by Judge Bond. in later years, when several military commissioners undertook to sit in Baltimore and try citizens for offences against the United States, he charged the grand jury to indict the oiticers on these commissions, because they had no jurisdiction over persons not in the military service of the government, especially when the civil courts were open. Shortly before the close of his term, Governor Swann claimed the right to remove the police commissioners and appoint others, and when the de facto commissioners fortified the station-houses' and armed the police to defend their right to the office, authorized his appointees to raise followers sufficient to put the resisting commissioners out, and called upon President Johnson to send federal troops to interfere. Judge Bond told General Grant, who came to investigate the situation, that the de facto commissioners would obey a written order from the president brought by a single soldier bearing the United States flag; but that if the federal authorities declined to interfere, he would arrest the Swarm commissioners, and hold them to bail to keep the peace, which was accordingly done. After the emancipation of the slaves under the revised constitution of 1864, the slaveholders took advantage of an old apprentice law, and had the children of the free Negroes brought to the probate courts and apprenticed to themselves. Judge Bond decided that these apprentices were held in involuntary servitude, and released, on habeas corpus, all that were brought before him. He was a prominent member of an association for the education of colored people, to which his friend, See. Stanton, transferred all the federal barracks in Maryland for the purpose of building school-houses. With assistance from the freedmen's aid societies, schools were established in all the counties of the state, and Judge Bond visited every locality, and made speeches intended to overcome the prejudices of the people against the schools, which frequently broke out into violence. He lost his seat on the bench in 1868, when the democrats obtained political ascendancy in the state, and resumed the practice of law in Baltimore. On 13 July 1870, President Grant nominated him judge of the 4th circuit of the United States court, which includes the states of Maryland, the two Virginias, and the two Carolinas. In 1871 he conducted, at Raleigh, North Carolina, and Columbia, South Carolina, many trials of ku-klux conspirators, more than 100 of whom he sentenced to the penitentiary.
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