Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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GALLAUDET, Thomas Hopkins, educator, born in Philadelphia, 10 December 1787; died in Hartford. Connecticut, 9 September, 1851. His family was of Huguenot origin. At an early age he moved with his parents to Hartford, Connecticut He was graduated at Yale in 1805, and after hesitating for some time as to whether he should study law, engage in trade, or study divinity, entered the Theological seminary at Andover in 1811. He was licensed to preach in 1814. His attention having been called to the neglected condition of the deaf and dumb in this country, he went to Europe in 1815, visiting in succession London, Edinburgh, and Paris. The work which had been begun in France in 1760, by De l'Epee, was successfully carried on by the Abbe Sicard ; and that which had been begun near Edinburgh, at an earlier date, by Thomas Braidwood, and later transferred to London, was under the charge of Dr. Joseph Watson, a nephew of Braid-wood. Gallaudet made himself familiar with the methods in use at both establishments, and, returning to the United States in 1816, he brought with him as assistant Laurent Clerc, a deaf-mute, and pupil of Sicard, in the following year, his arrangements having been completed, he began work in Hartford, Connecticut, with seven pupils. His school soon became a prosperous asylum, and its founder, amid much encouragement, remained in charge as president until 1830, when he resigned on account of ill health. He continued, however, to take an active part in the management of the institution, as one of its directors, and to give it the benefit of his wisdom and experience. In 1838 he became chaplain of the Connecticut retreat for the insane at Middletown, which office he retained till his death. During his lifetime he published extensively. Among his works are " Sermons Preached to an English Congregation in Paris " (London, 1818) ; "Bible Stories for the Young" ; "Child's Book of the Soul" (3d ed., 1850); "Youth's Book of Natural Theology," and other similar works. He edited also six volumes of " Annals of the Deaf and Dumb" (Hartford). A biography of Gallaudet was published by Heman Humphrey, D.D. (New York, 1858).--His wife, Sophia Fowler, born in New England in 1798; died in Washington, D. C., 13 May, 1877, was one of Mr. Gallaudet's deaf-mute pupils. She gave hearty aid both to her husband and to her son, Edward M. Gallaudet, in the schools of which they respectively had charge.--Their son, Thomas, clergyman, born in Hartford, Connecticut, 8 June, 1822, was graduated at Trinity College in 1842. He taught in the New York institution for deaf-mutes from 1843 till 1858, and in the mean time took orders in the Protestant Episcopal Church, being ordained deacon in June, 1850, and priest in June, 1851. He founded St. Ann's Church for deaf-mutes in October, 1852, and in 1859 a Church and rectory were secured in Eighteenth Street, near Fifth avenue. In addition to his many other duties, Gallaudet accepted the pastorate of the Sisterhood of the Good Shepherd in April, 1869, and the chaplaincy of the" midnight mission" in November, 1871. In October, 1872, "The Church Mission to Deaf-Mutes" was incorporated, and he was appointed its general manager. In this capacity he has been the pioneer of Church work among deaf-mutes throughout the country, and institutions similar to St. Ann's have grown up in Philadelphia, Baltimore, Albany, Boston, and other cities. He has attended all the conventions of teachers of deaf-mutes held in this country, and was present at the convention held at Milan in September, 1880, and at that held in Brussels in August, 1883. In the summer of 1886 he visited California in the interest of deaf-mutes. In December, 1885, he founded the "Gallaudet Home for Deaf-Mutes," on a farm on the Hudson River, between New Hamburg and Poughkeepsie, especially intended for the aged and infirm. He resigned the chaplaincy of the midnight mission in 1874, but continues to hold his other offices (1887). Trinity gave him the degree of D. D, in 1862, and he has been a trustee of that College since 1883. He has prepared from the first the annual reports of the "Church Mission," and has been a contributor to the "American Annals of the Deaf and Dumb," and other periodicals. --Another son, Edward Miner, educator, born in Hartford, Connecticut, 5 February, 1837, was educated at Trinity, but not graduated. He began to teach in 1856 in the Hartford institution which his father had founded, and in 1857, at the invitation of Amos Kendall, went to Washington, D. C., with his mother, and organized the Columbian institution for the deaf, dumb, and blind. In 1864 he aided in establishing the National deaf-mute College, became its president, and in 1865 also professor of moral and political science. He visited the principal deaf and dumb institutions of Europe in 1867, and in 1868, after his return, published an elaborate report of his observations. In 1SS0, in compliance with a request made by principals of schools for the deaf and dumb in this country, he attended the international congress of instructors of deaf-mutes held at Milan, Italy. In 1881 he succeeded James A. Garfield as president of the literary society at Washington, D.C. He was president of the Convention of American instructors of deaf-mutes, held at Jacksonville, Illinois, in 1888. In 1886 he visited England, at the request of the British government, and gave information to the royal commission on the education of the blind, deaf, and dumb, regarding the system pursued in the United States. Trinity College, Hartford, gave him the degree of LB. D, in 1869, and Columbian University that of Ph.D, in the same year. He is the author of a popular "Manual of International Law" (1879), and he has nearly ready for publication (1887) a memoir of his father.
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