Virtual Museum of Art | Virtual Museum of History | Virtual Public Library | Virtual Science Center | Virtual Museum of Natural History | Virtual War Museum
   You are in: Museum of History >> Hall of North and South Americans >> Thomas Jonathan Jackson





American’s Four United Republics: Discovery-Based Curriculum

For more information go to Historic.us

 

Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1887-1889 and 1999. Virtualology.com warns that these 19th Century biographies contain errors and bias. We rely on volunteers to edit the historic biographies on a continual basis. If you would like to edit this biography please submit a rewritten biography in text form . If acceptable, the new biography will be published above the 19th Century Appleton's Cyclopedia Biography citing the volunteer editor



Virtual American Biographies

Over 30,000 personalities with thousands of 19th Century illustrations, signatures, and exceptional life stories. Virtualology.com welcomes editing and additions to the biographies. To become this site's editor or a contributor Click Here or e-mail Virtualology here.



A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

 





Click on an image to view full-sized

Thomas Jonathan Jackson

JACKSON, Thomas Jonathan, soldier, born in Clarksburg, West Va., 21 January, 1824; died at Chancellorsville, Virginia, 10 May, 1863. His great-grandfather emigrated from London in 1748 to Maryland. Here he married Elizabeth Cummins, and shortly afterward removed to West Virginia, where he founded a large family. At seven years of age Thomas Jonathan, whose father had been a lawyer, became an orphan, and he was brought up by a bachelor uncle, Cummins Jackson. Young Jackson's constitution was weak, but the rough life of a West Virginia farm strengthened it, and he became a constable for the county He was appointed a cadet at the United States military academy at the age of eighteen. His preparation was poor, and he never reached a high grade. On his graduation in 1846 he was ordered to Mexico, became a lieutenant in Magruder's battery, and took part in General Scott's campaign from Vera Cruz to the city of Mexico. He was twice brevetted for good conduct at Churubusco and Chapultepee. After the Mexican war he was for a time on duty at Fort Hamilton, New York harbor, and subsequently was sent to Fort Meade, Florida. He resigned from the army in 1851, on his election as professor of philosophy and artillery tactics in Virginia military institute. He was noted for the faithfulness with which he performed his duties and his earnestness in matters of religion (he was a member and officer of the Presbyterian church); but his success as a teacher was not great. He took much interest in the improvement of the slaves and conducted a Sunday school for their benefit, which continued in operation a generation after his death. A few days after the secession of Virginia he took command of the troops that were collecting at Harper's Ferry, and, when Virginia joined the Confederacy a few weeks later, he was relieved by General Joseph E. Johnston, and then became commander of a brigade in Johnston's army, which rank he held at the battle of Bull Run. In that action the left of the Confederate line had been turned and the troops holding it driven back for some distance. Disaster to the Confederates was imminent, and Johnston was hurrying up troops to support his left. Jackson's brigade was the first to get into position, and checked the progress of the National forces. The broken troops rallied upon his line, other re-enforcements reached the left, the Confederates took the aggressive, and in a short time gained a victory. In the crisis of the fight, General Bernard E. Bee, in rallying his men, said: "See, there is Jackson standing like a stone wall; rally on the Virginians!" Bee fell a few moments after, but his exclamation gave Jackson a new name. For his conduct at Bull Run, Jackson was made major-general, and in November, 1861, was assigned to the command of the district that included the Shenandoah valley and the portion of Virginia northwest of it. In the course of the winter he drove the National troops from his district, but the weather compelled him to return to winter quarters at Winchester. Early in March he was at Winchester with 5,000 men, while General Nathaniel P. Banks was advancing against him from the Potomac. Jackson's instructions were to detain as large a hostile force as possible in the valley, without risking the destruction of his own troops. He fell back forty miles before Banks; but as soon as the latter returned to Winchester and began to send his troops away, Jackson with 3,500 men made a forced march toward Winchester, and on 23 March attacked the troops still left in the valley with great vigor. In this battle (at Kernstown) he was defeated; but so fierce and unexpected was the attack that Banks, with all the troops within reach, returned to the valley. Jackson retreated up the Shenandoah and took position at Swift Run Gap in the Blue Ridge mountains At the end of April, 1862, he entered upon a new campaign in the valley. While McClellan's great army was pushing up the peninsula toward Richmond, General Irvin McDowell with 30,000 men lay on the Rappahannock and threatened Richmond from the north. Banks with 20,000 men occupied Harrisonburg and was watching Jackson, while Fremont was gathering a column of 15,000 men on the upper Potomac and moving toward Staunton. Jackson was given control of all the Confederate troops in northern Virginia, with instructions to do the best he could to hamper the operations of the National armies in that region. His troops consisted of his own division of 8,000 men, General Richard S. Ewell's division of about the same number, and General Edward Johnson's brigade of 3,000 men, which was in Fremont's front. Jackson, having united his own division with Johnson's brigade by a circuitous march, struck the head of Fremont's column at the village of McDowell on 8 May, and damaged it so as to paralyze it for some weeks. He then returned rapidly to the Shenandoah valley and concentrated all his forces against Banks, who, having sent half his troops to General McDowell on the Rappahannock, had taken position at Strasburg and Front Royal. Jackson surprised him, overwhelmed the detachment at Front Royal on 23 May, and on the 25th defeated Banks at Winchester and drove him beyond the Potomac, making large captures of prisoners and stores. The National government took possession of the railroads, and recalled McDowell from Fredericksburg and Fremont from West Virginia to fall upon Jackson's rear, while Banks and Sigel were to move from the Potomac. On the night of 30 May, Jackson at Winchester seemed about to be surrounded; but, making a rapid march next morning, he placed himself at Strasburg directly between his principal antagonists, McDowell and Fremont, and kept one of them at bay by a show of force, and bewildered the other by the rapidity of his movements, until his prisoners and captured stores had been sent to the rear. He then retreated up the valley, pursued by Shields's division of McDowell's forces and by Fremont, whom he kept apart by burning the bridges over the Shenandoah. He turned at bay at Port Republic on 8 June, repelled Fremont at Cross Keys, and, crossing the Shenandoah during the night and the early morning, threw himself unexpectedly upon the head of McDowell's column near Port Republic, which he routed and drove from the battle-field before Shields with the main body of his division could get up or Fremont could render assistance from the other side of the river. The National forces retreated to the lower Shenandoah. Jackson now hastened by forced marches to Richmond to unite with General Lee in attacking McClellan. Here, on 27 June, Jackson turned the scale in the battle of Gaines's Mills, where Fitz-John Porter was overthrown. He also took part in the subsequent operations during McClellan's retreat. About the middle of July, Lee detached Jackson to Gordonsville to look after his old adversaries of the Shenandoah valley, who were again gathering under General John Pope. On 9 August, Jackson, having crossed the Rapidan, defeated Banks at Cedar Run. A week later Lee arrived with Longstreet's corps, and the campaign against Pope began in earnest. On 25 August, Jackson was sent from the Rappahannock with 25,000 men to pass around Pope's right flank, seize his depot at Manassas, and break up his communications; and this movement was successful, and Pope was forced to let go the Rappahannock. Jackson kept his opponent at bay by stubborn fighting, and kept him on the ground until Lee with the rest of the Confederate army arrived, when Pope was defeated in the battle of 30 August, 1862, known as the second battle of Manassas, Oroveton, or Bull Run In the Maryland campaign two weeks later General Jackson had charge of the operations that resulted in the investment and capture of the post at Hat-pews Ferry, 15 September, with 13,000 prisoners and seventy cannon, while Lee held back McClellan at South Mountain and along the Antietam. By a severe night march, Jackson reached Sharpsburg on 16 September, and the next day commanded the left wing of the Confederate army, against which McClellan hurled in succession Hooker's, Mansfield's, and Sumner's corps. With thinned lines, Jackson maintained himself throughout the day near the Dunker church, while one of his divisions--A. P. Hill's, which had been left at Harper's Ferry--reached the field late in the day and defeated Burnside's corps, which was making rapid progress against the Confederate right flank. At Fredericksburg, 13 December, 1862, Jackson, who meantime had been promoted to the rank of lieutenant-general, commanded the right wing of the Confederate army, which repelled the attack of Franklin's division. When, in the spring of 1863, Hooker's movement upon Chancellorsville was fully developed, Lee ordered Jackson's corps to move up to meet him. On the morning of 1 May, Jackson met Hooker emerging from the wilderness that surrounds Chancellorsville, and at once assumed the aggressive so fiercely that Hooker withdrew into the wilderness and established lines of defence. As these offered no favorable opportunity for attack, Lee ordered Jackson to make a flank movement around the right of the National army. At sunrise, 2 May, Jackson was on the march, and all day he pursued his way through the wilderness. When his movement was discovered, and General Daniel E. Sickles attacked some of his trains, Jackson sent back a brigade to cover his rear and continued his march. Late in the evening he had reached the old turnpike, upon the flank and rear of General O. O. Howard's corps, which held the right of Hooker's army. Quickly forming his command into three lines of battle, Jackson attacked furiously. He routed Howard's corps in half an hour, and pressed the troops sent to its assistance back to the vicinity of Chancellorsville, when his own forces were checked by a powerful artillery fire from batteries hastily brought into line. (See PLEASONTON, ALFRED.) Between eight and nine o'clock Jackson with a small party rode forward beyond his own lines to reconnoitre. As he turned to ride back, his party was mistaken for National cavalry, and a volley was poured into it by Lane's brigade. Several of the party were killed, and Jackson received three wounds, two in the left arm and one through the right hand. When he had been assisted from his horse and the flow of blood stanched, it was some minutes before he could be conveyed within his own lines, so fierce was the artillery fire that swept the field. This fire struck down one of the litter-bearers, and the general was badly injured by the fall. His left arm was amputated, and for some days he seemed to be doing well; but on 7 May he was attacked by pneumonia, which left him too exhausted to rally. His remains were taken to Richmond, whence, after a public funeral, they were removed to Lexington. Jackson was a tall, spare man, of polite but constrained address and few words. He was twice married, first to Miss Eleanor Junkin, and secondly to Miss Mary Ann Morrison. The latter, with one daughter, survives him. A bronze statue of General Jackson, paid for by English subscriptions, was unveiled in Richmond, Virginia, in 1875. His life has been written by Robert L. Dabney (New York, 1863) and by John Esten Cooke (1866).

Edited Appletons Encyclopedia, Copyright © 2001 VirtualologyTM

Start your search on Thomas Jonathan Jackson.


 

 


 


Unauthorized Site: This site and its contents are not affiliated, connected, associated with or authorized by the individual, family, friends, or trademarked entities utilizing any part or the subject's entire name. Any official or affiliated sites that are related to this subject will be hyper linked below upon submission and Evisum, Inc. review.

Copyright© 2000 by Evisum Inc.TM. All rights reserved.
Evisum Inc.TM Privacy Policy

Search:

About Us

 

 

Image Use

Please join us in our mission to incorporate America's Four United Republics discovery-based curriculum into the classroom of every primary and secondary school in the United States of America by July 2, 2026, the nation’s 250th birthday. , the United States of America: We The People Click Here

 

Childhood & Family

Click Here

 

Historic Documents

Articles of Association

Articles of Confederation 1775

Articles of Confederation

Article the First

Coin Act

Declaration of Independence

Declaration of Independence

Emancipation Proclamation

Gettysburg Address

Monroe Doctrine

Northwest Ordinance

No Taxation Without Representation

Thanksgiving Proclamations

Mayflower Compact

Treaty of Paris 1763

Treaty of Paris 1783

Treaty of Versailles

United Nations Charter

United States In Congress Assembled

US Bill of Rights

United States Constitution

US Continental Congress

US Constitution of 1777

US Constitution of 1787

Virginia Declaration of Rights

 

Historic Events

Battle of New Orleans

Battle of Yorktown

Cabinet Room

Civil Rights Movement

Federalist Papers

Fort Duquesne

Fort Necessity

Fort Pitt

French and Indian War

Jumonville Glen

Manhattan Project

Stamp Act Congress

Underground Railroad

US Hospitality

US Presidency

Vietnam War

War of 1812

West Virginia Statehood

Woman Suffrage

World War I

World War II

 

Is it Real?



Declaration of
Independence

Digital Authentication
Click Here

 

America’s Four Republics
The More or Less United States

 
Continental Congress
U.C. Presidents

Peyton Randolph

Henry Middleton

Peyton Randolph

John Hancock

  

Continental Congress
U.S. Presidents

John Hancock

Henry Laurens

John Jay

Samuel Huntington

  

Constitution of 1777
U.S. Presidents

Samuel Huntington

Samuel Johnston
Elected but declined the office

Thomas McKean

John Hanson

Elias Boudinot

Thomas Mifflin

Richard Henry Lee

John Hancock
[
Chairman David Ramsay]

Nathaniel Gorham

Arthur St. Clair

Cyrus Griffin

  

Constitution of 1787
U.S. Presidents

George Washington 

John Adams
Federalist Party


Thomas Jefferson
Republican* Party

James Madison 
Republican* Party

James Monroe
Republican* Party

John Quincy Adams
Republican* Party
Whig Party

Andrew Jackson
Republican* Party
Democratic Party


Martin Van Buren
Democratic Party

William H. Harrison
Whig Party

John Tyler
Whig Party

James K. Polk
Democratic Party

David Atchison**
Democratic Party

Zachary Taylor
Whig Party

Millard Fillmore
Whig Party

Franklin Pierce
Democratic Party

James Buchanan
Democratic Party


Abraham Lincoln 
Republican Party

Jefferson Davis***
Democratic Party

Andrew Johnson
Republican Party

Ulysses S. Grant 
Republican Party

Rutherford B. Hayes
Republican Party

James A. Garfield
Republican Party

Chester Arthur 
Republican Party

Grover Cleveland
Democratic Party

Benjamin Harrison
Republican Party

Grover Cleveland 
Democratic Party

William McKinley
Republican Party

Theodore Roosevelt
Republican Party

William H. Taft 
Republican Party

Woodrow Wilson
Democratic Party

Warren G. Harding 
Republican Party

Calvin Coolidge
Republican Party

Herbert C. Hoover
Republican Party

Franklin D. Roosevelt
Democratic Party

Harry S. Truman
Democratic Party

Dwight D. Eisenhower
Republican Party

John F. Kennedy
Democratic Party

Lyndon B. Johnson 
Democratic Party 

Richard M. Nixon 
Republican Party

Gerald R. Ford 
Republican Party

James Earl Carter, Jr. 
Democratic Party

Ronald Wilson Reagan 
Republican Party

George H. W. Bush
Republican Party 

William Jefferson Clinton
Democratic Party

George W. Bush 
Republican Party

Barack H. Obama
Democratic Party

Please Visit

Forgotten Founders
Norwich, CT

Annapolis Continental
Congress Society


U.S. Presidency
& Hospitality

© Stan Klos

 

 

 

 


Virtual Museum of Art | Virtual Museum of History | Virtual Public Library | Virtual Science Center | Virtual Museum of Natural History | Virtual War Museum