Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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BULWER, William Henry Lytton Earle, Baron, diplomatist, born in London, 13 February, 1801; died at Naples, 23 May, 1872. To citizens of the United States he is better known as Sir Henry BULWER, negotiator with Senator John Me Clayton of the Clayton-Bulwer treaty. He was educated at Cambridge, but left the University in 1824 to begin his diplomatic career as a government messenger to Greece. On his return in 1825 he entered the 2d life-guards as a cornet, but soon obtained an unattached commission on half-pay, and, commuting the latter by one of those convenient regulations known to the British army, entered the civil service. He was appointed attaché at Berlin in 1827, transferred to Vienna in 1829, and to the Hague in 1830. His dispatches during the revolutionary proceedings in Belgium that year were considered so able that he was given a regular official appointment at Brussels. He was returned to parliament in 1830, and during the four succeeding sessions won high repute as a debater. He was appointed secretary of legation, and afterward charg6 d'affaires at Brussels in 1835-'6. In 1837 he was sent to Constantinople as secretary of embassy, thence to St. Petersburg, and thence to Paris in 1839 as charg6 d'affaires. He was ambassador to Spain from 1843 till 1848. In all of these places he evinced unusual diplomatic talents, and conducted several important and complicated negotiations. On 19 May, 1848, Marshal Navarrez expelled him from Spain, because he formally protested against some of the insurrectionary proceedings in Madrid. In December of the same year he married a niece of the first duke of Wellington. On 27 April, 1849, Sir Henry was appointed British minister at Washington, where he remained three years. During this time he was associated with Senator John Middleton Clayton in preparing the treaty bearing their joint names, which is still in force. This guarantees the neutrality of interoceanic commercial routes across the Central American isthmus. After this he was sent successively to Florence, Constantinople, and the Danubian principalities, adding greatly to his reputation as a skilled diplomatist. He retired from the diplomatic service in 1865, and two years later re-entered parliament, and retained his seat until he was raised to the peerage in 1871 as Baron Dalling and Bulwer. He published a small volume of poems (1822); "Autumn in Greece" (1826); "France, Social, Literary, and Political" (1834). The last named is the first half of a work completed in 1836, called "The Monarchy of the Middle Classes." He prefixed a "Life of Lord Byron" to the Paris edition of that poet's works (1835). His best-known books are "Historical Characters" (London, 1868) and "Life of Palmerston" (2 vols., London, 1870 ; Philadelphia, 1871). He was a brother of Bulwer the novelist, and during his residence at Washington had for his private secretary the present Lord Lytton, known in literature as "Owen Meredith."
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