Virtual Museum of Art | Virtual Museum of History | Virtual Public Library | Virtual Science Center | Virtual Museum of Natural History | Virtual War Museum
   You are in: Museum of History >> Hall of North and South Americans >> William Mitchell





American’s Four United Republics: Discovery-Based Curriculum

For more information go to Historic.us

 

Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1887-1889 and 1999. Virtualology.com warns that these 19th Century biographies contain errors and bias. We rely on volunteers to edit the historic biographies on a continual basis. If you would like to edit this biography please submit a rewritten biography in text form . If acceptable, the new biography will be published above the 19th Century Appleton's Cyclopedia Biography citing the volunteer editor





Virtual American Biographies

Over 30,000 personalities with thousands of 19th Century illustrations, signatures, and exceptional life stories. Virtualology.com welcomes editing and additions to the biographies. To become this site's editor or a contributor Click Here or e-mail Virtualology here.



A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

 



William Mitchell

MITCHELL, William, astronomer, born in Nantucket, Massachusetts, 20 December, 1791; died in Poughkeepsie, New York, 19 April, 1868. He was fitted for college, and it was intended to send him to Harvard, but the war of 181.2 prevented. Subsequently he taught for several years and developed a fondness for astronomy, having only a rude telescope made by a clock-maker. He then became cashier of the Pacific bank in Nantucket, and, with a much better equipped observatory, made systematic determinations in connection with the United States coast survey. Investigations in astronomy and mathematics were the pastimes of his busy life, and were continued until his death. Mr. Mitchell received the degree of A.M. from Brown in 1848, and from Harvard in 1860, being also overseer of the latter university for some years, serving as chairman of the committee to visit the observatory in Cambridge. He was a member of scientific societies, and contributed astronomical articles to the " American Journal of Science " and other similar periodicals.--His daughter, Maria, astronomer, born in Nantucket, Massachusetts, 1 August, 1818, early made such progress in mathematical and astronomical studies as to be able to assist her father in his investigations, meanwhile acquiring her education under his tuition. Later she studied under Charles Peirce, becoming his assistant in the school at Nantucket. She was appointed librarian of the Nantucket athenwum, an office which she held for many years, and since she was seventeen years old she has regularly earned a salary. Her interest in astronomy was not relaxed, and she made many careful observations by herself, and devoted considerable time to the examination of nebuhe and the search for comets. Her efforts proved successful, and, besides finding small nebula, on 1 October, 1847, she discovered a comet, for which she received a gold medal from the king of Denmark, and also a copper medal struck by the republic of San Marino, Italy. When the publication of the American nautical almanac was begun she was employed on that work, which she continued until after her appointment at Vassar. She went to Europe in 1858 and visited the principal observatories of Great Britain and the continent. Miss Mitchell was the guest of Sir John Herschel and Sir George B. Airy during her stay in England, and also visited LeVerrier in Paris and Humboldt in Berlin. After her return from Europe she was presented with a telescope, much larger than any owned by her father, by the women of America, through the exertions of Miss Elizabeth Peabody, of Boston. In 1865 she was called to the professorship of astronomy at Vassar college, which, with the post of director of the observatory, she retained until January, 1888, when she offered her resignation, but the trustees refused to take any definite action, granting her, however, a leave of absence. In addition to her teaching she has in recent years specially studied the sun-spots and the satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. The degree of LL. D. was conferred on her by Hanover in 1852 and by Columbia in 1887. She is a member of various scientific societies, having been elected a member of the American association for the advancement of science in 1850, and a fellow of that organization in 1874. Miss Mitchell was the first woman to be elected to the American academy of arts and sciences, and she has been prominent in the movement tending to elevate woman's work, having held the presidency of the American association for the advancement of women at the Syracuse meeting in 1875 and at the Philadelphia meeting in 1876. Her published writings have been restricted to scientific papers.--William's son, Henry, hydrographer, born in Nantucket. Mass., 16 September, 1830, was educated at private schools, and turned his attention to physical hydrology as relating to rivers and harbors and their regimen and control under the action of tide-water and river currents. His earliest work was performed under the auspices of the United States coast survey, near the islands of Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard. Subsequently he made the waters of the vicinity, of New York the subject of his investigations, serving as assistant to the commissioners on harbor encroachments in 1859, and while thus employed first discovered the underflow of the Hudson, which has been since shown by him to be a restitution of equilibrium between river and sea waters of different densities, that changes with the seasons, in 1860-'7 he served as consulting engineer to the United States commission on Boston harbor, and later he became a member of the commission itself. He was called in as consulting expert by the National academy sent to investigate the causes of the decline of Greytown harbor, Nicaragua, in 1867, and the report contained a theory of the case that has since been confirmed by his later observations at Greytown. Mr. Mitchell has held government commissions to examine the principal harbors along the Atlantic coast, including Portland, Maine, Providence, Rhode Island, Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, many of which he has been called to report on several times. In 1874 he was appointed to represent the United States coast survey in the board of engineers for the improvement of the mouth of the Mississippi, and was subsequently a member of the James B. Eads advisory board and of the Mississippi river commission. He was invited to take part in the Agassiz summer-school, and has also held the chair of physical hydrography in the Massachusetts institute of technology. He visited the Suez canal in 1879, and inspected it under the authority of Ferdinand de Lesseps, publishing a report in the "North American Review." Mr. Mitchell received the degree of A. M. from Harvard in 1867, is a member of the American society of civil engineers, and was chosen to the National academy of sciences in 1885. His scientific papers have been published principally in the United States coast survey reports. Among the most important are "Reclamation of Tide-Lands and its Relation to Navigation" (1869); "On an Inspection of the Terminal Points of the proposed Canal through Nicaragua and the Isthmus of Darien" (1874); "Notes concerning Alleged Changes in the Relative Elevations of Land and Sea" (1877); " Physical Hydrography of the Gulf of Maine" (1879) ; "The Estuary of the Delaware" (1883) ; and " On the Circulation of the Sea through New York Harbor" (1886).

Edited Appletons Encyclopedia, Copyright © 2001 VirtualologyTM

Start your search on William Mitchell.


 

 


 


Unauthorized Site: This site and its contents are not affiliated, connected, associated with or authorized by the individual, family, friends, or trademarked entities utilizing any part or the subject's entire name. Any official or affiliated sites that are related to this subject will be hyper linked below upon submission and Evisum, Inc. review.

Copyright© 2000 by Evisum Inc.TM. All rights reserved.
Evisum Inc.TM Privacy Policy

Search:

About Us

 

 

Image Use

Please join us in our mission to incorporate America's Four United Republics discovery-based curriculum into the classroom of every primary and secondary school in the United States of America by July 2, 2026, the nation’s 250th birthday. , the United States of America: We The People Click Here

 

Childhood & Family

Click Here

 

Historic Documents

Articles of Association

Articles of Confederation 1775

Articles of Confederation

Article the First

Coin Act

Declaration of Independence

Declaration of Independence

Emancipation Proclamation

Gettysburg Address

Monroe Doctrine

Northwest Ordinance

No Taxation Without Representation

Thanksgiving Proclamations

Mayflower Compact

Treaty of Paris 1763

Treaty of Paris 1783

Treaty of Versailles

United Nations Charter

United States In Congress Assembled

US Bill of Rights

United States Constitution

US Continental Congress

US Constitution of 1777

US Constitution of 1787

Virginia Declaration of Rights

 

Historic Events

Battle of New Orleans

Battle of Yorktown

Cabinet Room

Civil Rights Movement

Federalist Papers

Fort Duquesne

Fort Necessity

Fort Pitt

French and Indian War

Jumonville Glen

Manhattan Project

Stamp Act Congress

Underground Railroad

US Hospitality

US Presidency

Vietnam War

War of 1812

West Virginia Statehood

Woman Suffrage

World War I

World War II

 

Is it Real?



Declaration of
Independence

Digital Authentication
Click Here

 

America’s Four Republics
The More or Less United States

 
Continental Congress
U.C. Presidents

Peyton Randolph

Henry Middleton

Peyton Randolph

John Hancock

  

Continental Congress
U.S. Presidents

John Hancock

Henry Laurens

John Jay

Samuel Huntington

  

Constitution of 1777
U.S. Presidents

Samuel Huntington

Samuel Johnston
Elected but declined the office

Thomas McKean

John Hanson

Elias Boudinot

Thomas Mifflin

Richard Henry Lee

John Hancock
[
Chairman David Ramsay]

Nathaniel Gorham

Arthur St. Clair

Cyrus Griffin

  

Constitution of 1787
U.S. Presidents

George Washington 

John Adams
Federalist Party


Thomas Jefferson
Republican* Party

James Madison 
Republican* Party

James Monroe
Republican* Party

John Quincy Adams
Republican* Party
Whig Party

Andrew Jackson
Republican* Party
Democratic Party


Martin Van Buren
Democratic Party

William H. Harrison
Whig Party

John Tyler
Whig Party

James K. Polk
Democratic Party

David Atchison**
Democratic Party

Zachary Taylor
Whig Party

Millard Fillmore
Whig Party

Franklin Pierce
Democratic Party

James Buchanan
Democratic Party


Abraham Lincoln 
Republican Party

Jefferson Davis***
Democratic Party

Andrew Johnson
Republican Party

Ulysses S. Grant 
Republican Party

Rutherford B. Hayes
Republican Party

James A. Garfield
Republican Party

Chester Arthur 
Republican Party

Grover Cleveland
Democratic Party

Benjamin Harrison
Republican Party

Grover Cleveland 
Democratic Party

William McKinley
Republican Party

Theodore Roosevelt
Republican Party

William H. Taft 
Republican Party

Woodrow Wilson
Democratic Party

Warren G. Harding 
Republican Party

Calvin Coolidge
Republican Party

Herbert C. Hoover
Republican Party

Franklin D. Roosevelt
Democratic Party

Harry S. Truman
Democratic Party

Dwight D. Eisenhower
Republican Party

John F. Kennedy
Democratic Party

Lyndon B. Johnson 
Democratic Party 

Richard M. Nixon 
Republican Party

Gerald R. Ford 
Republican Party

James Earl Carter, Jr. 
Democratic Party

Ronald Wilson Reagan 
Republican Party

George H. W. Bush
Republican Party 

William Jefferson Clinton
Democratic Party

George W. Bush 
Republican Party

Barack H. Obama
Democratic Party

Please Visit

Forgotten Founders
Norwich, CT

Annapolis Continental
Congress Society


U.S. Presidency
& Hospitality

© Stan Klos

 

 

 

 


Virtual Museum of Art | Virtual Museum of History | Virtual Public Library | Virtual Science Center | Virtual Museum of Natural History | Virtual War Museum